Universal Grammar belongs to an innate naturally endowed linguistic faculty. It puts limitations upon grammars, limiting their form and how they function (the computational organism, principles, which the grammar is based on)…
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This paper is a reflective essay on Universal grammar in Second Language Acquisition. Universal Grammar is a concept appropriate to the linguistic competence issue, for instance, a notion concerning the grammatical representation nature.
Although Universal Grammar affords constraints on potential grammars in the acquisition process, it is not an acquisition theory. This fact is often misconstrued, possibly owing to expressions like LAD (Language Acquisition Device) that numerous persons earlier equated with Universal Grammar. Nevertheless, it might be more correct to consider Universal Grammar as merely part of Language Acquisition Device or faculty of language. The Language Acquisition Device will as well have to encompass learning ideologies, triggering algorithms, and processing doctrines. In other terms, on top of a constraints theory on Inter-Language representation, a concept on means of acquiring that representation is needed; a developmental theory (whether it is in first Language or second Language acquisition) (Epstein, Flynn & Martohardjono, 1996). Although Universal Grammar adds to enlightenment on languages’ acquisition, this is in the manner of how learners happen to know properties, which go far past the input; how learners know that particular things are impossible, why parsing are of single sort instead of another. Universal Grammar claims that these properties about language do not require to be learned. What motivates for Universal Language? It is the assertion that, however, in the instance of L1 (first languages), there exists a rational language acquisition problem, an incongruity amid what enters (specifically, the primary dialectal data) as well as what gets out (a parsing). In other terms, the input establishes the output (Epstein, Flynn & Martohardjono, 1996). Supposing a rational problem of first languages acquisition, persons have inquired whether the case is the same for second languages. This inquiry remains dominant - do second language learners get insentient information (a psychological representation), which goes further than the second language input? If they do, can alternative causes of this information be eliminated, for instance, the first language? The solidest example for the function of Universal Grammar in Second Language Acquisition is that the second language elements cannot be acquired from input only or from input and non-domain-specific learning doctrines or from the first grammar only (Schwartz & Sprouse, 1996). Supposing that there exists indeed a rational problem of second language acquisition, investigators have enquired more Universal Grammar-specific enquiries. In the ‘80s, the Universal Grammar question seemed comparatively straight forward (as well as relatively universal): Is Universal Grammar available (or reachable) to second language learners? Do inter-language grammars show proof of being restrained by Universal Grammar principles? Several principles were explored, such as the ECP, Binding Principle A and Subjacency. The hypothesis was that if one can establish that certain Universal Grammar principle works or does not work, then this simplifies to other philosophies, hence to Universal Grammar
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Second Language Acquisition
The need and urge to communicate with others in the society is the most dominating factor that influences and accelerates the learning process of first language. According to Yiptong (1991), home and society provides full support to a learner in terms of an environment that is enriched with multiple opportunities to learn first language through language input data.
There is much debate centered on the appropriate time in a person’s life of when to begin learning a second language. Neuroscience perhaps is the best field to resolve this debate. Through the use of neuroimaging techniques, neuroscientists have the ability to identify the structures of the brain involved in primary and second language acquisition.
More than often, researches carried out have pointed out at the role of motivation being the major drive in second language acquisition. More so, second language researchers have associated the important predictors of second language acquisition focus on issues of motivation and anxiety.
In the recent past, globalization trends have dissolved physical boundaries across the globe. Currently, there is free flow of information, goods as well as services from one region to another. This has increased interactions between and amongst communities.
The challenge is the apparent difficulties that one may face in his attempt to learn his second language of choice. It is a proven fact that the ease of learning and grasping a language is a function of the relationship between one’s first language and the second language (Trimnell 2005, 76).
In fact, this form of research is facilitated by effort aimed at exploring the process of classroom language acquisition (Archibald, 2000). Therefore, in elementary school the learning process of second language depends on the input offered by teachers and oral output of learners.
Furthermore concept such as native like proficiency in terms of learning a foreign language also, invariably forms the basis of such debates. This paper discusses in detail, the concept of critical period hypothesis as proposed by Lennerberg and the various views and
Implementing bilingual education allows the classroom environment to promote English as its primary language and at the same time encourage and revitalize the use of a minority language (Leung, 2005).
Secondary language acquisition and English as a second language (ESL) is a
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