Causes and Responses to Challenging Behavior
Challenging behavior entails any degree of unusual conduct of a particular extent that the body wellness of others or a particular individual is likely to be exposed to a severe problem (Emerson 1995). …
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There have been claims that challenging behavior is responsible for exposing the tough in an advanced group level which have the effects of resulting into maturity or segregation from the learning category (Similarly, Simmons & Ward 1998).There were also establishments that there are some behaviors that can never be classified easily by the educators such as distractions, chatting as well as the non verbal maltreatments. Nonetheless, there is a different suggestion from Oliver (2003) that, the categorization of behavior appears as challenging throughout diverse schools. According to this scholar, the challenging behavior is developed socially. There is need for evaluating the matter of challenging behavior amongst individuals since it has attracted different theories and approaches from scholars. Therefore, this piece will look at the dissimilar theories that expound on behavior. Specifically, the piece will attain its baseline points of arguments the works by Bandura, Skinner, Vygotsky, and Watson. The piece will evaluate the Cognitive Behaviorist theory and Social Learning Theory. It is also significant to show how each theory takes care of the needs of the child and this paper will respond to that concern.
Reasoning from the behaviorist context, there is a realization that behavior could be learned or modified (Skinner 1904-90), the writer affirms this stipulation through the work entitled, ‘Operant Conditioning’. The scholar proceeded into highlighting that children operate on the environment through engagement in particular identifiable activities due to the results of such behaviors. Skinner outlines that any stimulus leading to the repeat of a particular behavior emphasizes that particular behavior. The response would vary from return, reward, attentiveness as well as social assistance. The situation instance to elaborate this suggestion would follow for instance, if a particular child, let us name him Tim confesses to another that he gets pleasure playing with the other named Carol of late. If Tim invites his playmate for dinner in addition, this would invoke the application of the Skinner’s suggestions. It can be proposed that support in the construction of the scenario would be a smile in spite of the situation, a word of praise for an outstanding behavior. Skinner upheld that particular rewards for such behavior reoccurrence on a different instance or instances. Even though support contributes to the increment in frequency of the behavior, it does it in a dissimilar manner. This situation may arise in the instance when we prefaer promoting a behavior in the child contrary to demanding the behavior in that person. In case something is happening and the child request the parent to stop it in a polite manner and it is done, then the alternate behavior is reinforced. For instance, the child requests for changing of a video clip. If the parent execute the child’s desire then the parent is strengthening the aimed behavior, that of requesting in a polite way. It can be argued that both positive and unhelpful support, when used appropriately can enhance the frequency of the ideal behavior. Major values of conventional habituation were contoured by the work of Ivan Pavlov (1819 -1936) where an unbiased stimulus brings about a response if put together with a stimulus that already has that response. Rewarding a student for positive a behavior exhibited enhances that behavior. For instance, if a teacher
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