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Learning Difficulties and Dyslexia - Literature review Example

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Learning difficulty is a major problem that affects the way in which a child learns new things in any area of his her life and it does not merely confine to learning in school. It also influence the method in which they understand and communicate…
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Learning Difficulties and Dyslexia
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Download file to see previous pages For a child with learning difficulty, it becomes hard to understand, learn and communicate when compared to the other children. A learning difficulty may be mild, moderate or rigorous. Few people with mild learning difficulty can speak easily and take care of themselves, but it takes a little longer than usual for them in order to learn new skills. A learning difficulty happens when an individual’s brain development has been affected, either before the birth, during birth or in the early childhood. “In 1975, Congress enacted the education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142), now known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)” (Bradley et al. 2002, p.25).which defines learning difficulties. This Act supports localities and the states to meet the needs of individuals with disabilities and provide them the right to public education. After the passage of this enactment, significant progress has been made in order to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities. Despite the problems associated with disabilities, with suitable academic and cognitive interventions and technology support, the effects of disability can be reduced. Persons with learning difficulties may face exceptional challenges which are often pervasive throughout the life period. On the basis of the type and rigorousness of the disability, current technologies and intervention may be made use of in order to help the person learn strategies that can help overcome their limitations. Dyslexia is a kind of learning difficulty which is “neurobiological in origin” (Lyon, 2003, p.3). It manifests through difficulties with fluent or accurate word recognition along with poor decoding and spelling abilities. These difficulties mainly result from a shortage in the phonological element of language which is frequently unexpected in connection to other cognitive abilities and the proviso of effective classroom instruction. The other consequences include problems of reduced reading experience and problems in reading which may impede the background knowledge and growth of vocabulary. ‘A specific learning difficulty can be defined as: an unexpected and unexplained condition, occurring in a child of average or above average intelligence, characterized by a significant delay in one or more areas of learning’ (Selikowitz, 2012, p.4).  According to Vicki L. Cohen and John Edwin Cohen, students having “learning disabilities” and trouble in reading can be diagnosed as having dyslexia. “Such students more often possess phonological reading disabilities and problems in identifying that words can be broken down into phonems and also that letters have sounds. They can also have problems in decoding words and in reading fluently. It is said to be “neurobiological” in origin since there is disruption of the neural system in the brain’s left hemisphere” (Lyon, 2003, p.2). “Dyslexia is one of several distinct learning disabilities. It is a specific language -based disorder of constitutional origin characterized by difficulties in single word decoding, usually reflecting insufficient phonological processing” (Lyon, 2003, p.2). These problems in single word decoding are frequently unexpected with respect to age and other academic and cognitive abilities and are not the consequence of sensory impairment or any generalized developmental disability. Dyslexia is evident by variable difficulty with diverse forms of language, often include, along with problems in reading, a noticeable problem with acquiring expertise in writing and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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