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Literature Review on Leadership Theories, Leadership styles and Visioning - Research Paper Example

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There remains a great debate on how the growth of information and communications technology (ICT) is influencing how the world is doing business. Bartz (2009), CEO of Yahoo, said that information and communications technology is both the hero waiting to be summoned and the villain that could destroy the world…
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Literature Review on Leadership Theories, Leadership styles and Visioning
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Download file to see previous pages This generosity and unconventional style has been adapted by many ICT companies. Facebook has the same casual office lay-out and also provides employees with free food. Viximo has a “come and go as you please” policy and actually encourages their employees to establish their own business. The question now is whether this leadership styles are really borne of the technology or a modification of the classic ones. Servant Leadership As early as 1977, Robert Greenleaf already came up with Servant leadership theory. He argues that great leaders are the ones that serve his constituents. Yet, earlier thinkers like Socrates and Xenophon (Adair, 1989) believed that leaders should lead by serving and even earlier than that is St. Paul who publicly declared that his strategy in ruling other people and making them follow him is by serving them. This is the same strategy used by Jesus Christ. Though many may question his persona as God, no one can question the greatness of his leadership style (Cross, 1998). ...
These things allow the employees to grow and learn and do their jobs (Dess and Picken, 2000). The test of whether or not servant leadership (Greenleaf, 1977) is effective lies in the productivity of the people within the organization. Servant leaders prove the system is working when people are more independent and able surpass the quality of work expected of them. It can be argued that an organization with a servant leader actually serves a purpose, not the person. Some examples of servant leaders are Mahatma Gandhi and Nelson Mandela. They all rule their nation but put their cause front and center instead of relying on their persona. This allows the people to hinge their faith on a dream instead of a person. It strengthens their faith in a vision instead of a person (Zohar & Marshall, 2001). Action-Centred Leaders Adair (1973) also developed the Action-Centered Leadership theory. This leader clearly demarcates three levels of leadership: the team, the job, and the person. These three elements require separate strategies but also overlap as each cannot be operated in a vacuum, one must be operated in consideration with the other two. This theory argues that there is no leadership style that may be considered the best kind and that several styles may actually be used in a single organization by one person. The key is in determining what kind works best for a certain situation. If servant leadership puts the members’ need in front and center, ACL believes that the task is the most important element in leading an organization (Adair, 1989). Leaderless Theory This is, perhaps, the newest of the new theories that are emerging and also the one that is directly influenced by ICT. Ori Brafman and Rod Beckstrom ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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