A Report on “Cognitive theories do not provide a full explanation of autism spectrum conditions. Discuss.” Name of University I. Introduction Reports of both adults and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have significantly increased and therefore have become more prevalent in the present age than it was before (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2012)…
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It is the goal of this paper to discuss autism spectrum conditions, cognitive theories which aim to provide an understanding of it, the failure to achieve this and the reasons for the failure that relate to the complex nature of autism. What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) defines Autism Spectrum Disorders as “a group of developmental disabilities characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and by restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviour”. Being a spectrum disorder or condition, this also implies that autism is manifested according to a range of degree of severity (Baron-Cohen 2008). ASDs are conditions that largely affect the social abilities of a person and consequently the progress to most aspects of developmental growth. ASDs are generally recognized through its main symptom which is reliably detected, that is the deficiency in verbal and nonverbal communication (Baron-Cohen et al. 1985). On one side, it may appear that an individual with ASD is completely deficient of social skills, language and key learning capabilities. In this case, this is diagnosed as classic autism (Baron-Cohen 2008). ...
These two extremities are both recognized under ADS. Common characteristics of these diagnoses are the strong inclination of the individual to engage in routinary and repetitive activities, and that they can be exceptionally consumed in topics of their interest. It is reported that 1% of the population have autism (Baron-Cohen 2008; Gillberg 2004). Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders It is alarming that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (2012) Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network (ADDM) reports that one in 88 children in United States has been identified with ASD. ADDM was able to identify in their studies that ASD reaches its peak manifestation at age 8 while symptoms are typically revealing even before the age of 3 years old (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2012). Understanding the ASD by methods of research and regular discussions indeed shows necessity at this current time as not only individuals and their families are being affected by this phenomenon. It can be regarded as a national and worldwide issue. The rise of ASD cases is expected as projected by a simple model created from various sources of autism data. Rogers 2011 shows a forecast of adults with autism to increase by over 600% using any extrapolation assumption. The care, support and management of ASDs are costly. In the United States, it costs over $12,000 to educate students with disabilities annually while for adults, it costs about $50,000 to $100,000 to support in a living set-up. These figures still vary according to age range of autism and also life longevity. Thus, this poses an imperative area of research for more detailed knowledge and understanding on the occurrence and extending of ASD cases.
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This paper is aimed at providing a comparative study of sociological theories versus biological and psychological explanation of deviance. Sociological theories are different from the two, while the two affect the intrinsic characters of a person; sociology affects the outside character of a person.
This disability also affects how an individual agrees with ideas and behaviours of other people. It also affects how such people make sense of the deeds of other people surrounding them (Baron-Cohen, 2008). Autism is a spectrum condition meaning that although individuals with autism share certain challenges, their conditions affect them differently.
The fact that the term “developmental” has been used to describe the disorder family means that children are either born with it or are born with the capability of developing it later. Working with a child with PDD needs special attention and considerations on the part of the educator.
Research indicates that some children experience complete mental disability while others don’t. Autism spectrum disorders are also known as pervasive developmental disorders and include following diseases (A Parents Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2011):
Out of the
First, his concept of chunking and short-term memory proves really challenging and informative. His idea of short-term holds 5- 9 chunks of data seems applicable in all spheres of life, thus forming the basis of subsequent memory theories (Miller, 1956). Consequently, the second concept, Test- Operate- Test – Exit (TOTE), proposing the replacement of the stimulus response with TOTE is applicable in the contemporary world.
ing symptoms to be the key features of Autism; difficulties in social interactions, challenges in communication and the tendency of the child to have repetitive behaviors. Currently, the DSM-v uses the term Autism spectrum disorder, level 1, level 2, or level 3.
Historically diagnosis can be made only on the basis of observations after the child’s communication and behavior in the society. However, autism is accompanied by a set of stereotypes and their consequences have a significant impact on the lives of people
Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is one of the key phenomena of electromagnetism, which behaves as photon particles or propagating waves travelling through space loaded with radiant energy (Abdo 2007). These waves characteristically travels at a speed of light in vacuum and in a straight line (Abdo, 2007).
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