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Roman and Egyptian Technology - Research Paper Example

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Summary
Roman and Egyptian Technology Technological invention and improvement dates back to the early days, probably with the tools used to dig the ground for planting. According to archeological research, there were different technologies before the 20th century, with extreme and radical improvement on the same shortly after the beginning of the twentieth century…
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Roman and Egyptian Technology
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Roman and Egyptian Technology

Download file to see previous pages... Horses and donkeys were domesticated roughly between 3000 BC and 4000 BC, while camels were domesticated between 2000 BC and 3000 BC, with the exact dates unavailable. By 3100 BC, Egyptians had invented sailing boats made of papyrus reeds tied together. However, the sails were weak and only useful when sailing unidirectional. Around 2700 BC, Egyptians made wooden ships for trade in the sea. They were steered using a long oar. On the other hand, the Romans built networks of roads in the empire for easy movement of the Roman army from one part of the empire to the other. The wealthy members of the empire used covered wagons on long journeys or horses (Olson 13). The Romans also had merchant ships famously called cortia, which had the ability to over 1000 tons of cargo. They had a single mast that carried the rectangular sail, though some others had small sails at the stern and bow. Similar to the Egyptians, the ships used oars for steering, though they had lighthouses for guidance. The fall of the Roman Empire was a blow to the transport system. Major roads in Europe became dirt tracks and mud in winter. The rudder was a European (earlier, the Roman Empire) invention that went a long way in the steering of ships. In addition, ships became advanced with the rudder and compasses, with three masts in addition by the 15th century. Turnpike roads opened in 1663, with the Bridgewater canal completion at the end of the 18th century. The nineteenth century saw the invention of the railways and steam locomotives, followed by horse drawn omnibuses in 1829 and the first car in 1886 by Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler (Danver 265). At the same time, steam turbines by Charles Parsons improved sea transport. Another interesting ancient technology is that of braces. According to archeologists and the American Association Orthodontists, there have been several discoveries of mummified ancients bearing metal bands around individual teeth. The Etruscans (Roman precursors) buried their dead dental appliances used to maintain dentition and space. In addition, a Roman tomb discovered in Egypt had a mummy whose teeth were bound by gold wire (Archwired). Additionally to note is the recordings of finger pressure treatment of teeth by Aurelius Cornelius Celsus during the time of Christ. Nonetheless, there were no significant orthodontic events occurring before the 17th century. The first publications on teeth straitening were in 1792. Astronomy, the natural science dealing with celestial objects, also dates back thousands of years ago. In ancient Egypt, people believed that the universe was an enormous rectangular box with Egypt at the center and huge lamps hanging down as the stars (Nicholson and Shaw 321). Similarly, most other cultures held the same concept with their cultures at the center of the world. Nonetheless, the ancient cultures, especially in Egyptian and Roman, were held back from technological development for investigating the cosmos by their beliefs in their many unpredictable gods. The Jews, which was the only culture that worshipped God, had a positive influence on the science through the bible. The Greeks were the first ancient culture to become aware of their surroundings. In fact, the word astronomy is a derivative from the Greek words “law and order”. However, the Greeks were not the only culture to try their hands on astronomy, but ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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