How Americans negotiate and how Europeans negotiate. Differences and similarities. Discussing negotiations, it is essential to point out that the word “negotiations” may have different meanings. Under negotiations we usually understand any form of consultations, communication, debates, views exchange, searching for a consensus…
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Negotiations can be also considered from another point of view. There are many opinions concerning the issue how cultural differences influence the process of negotiations. Some scholars state that there are common rules for behavior during the negotiations, special frames, which dictate how people should act (Foster, 1992). Thus, according to such point of view there are should be no connections between the negotiations and cultural backgrounds as everybody should follow common rules no matter what country he/she may be from. At the same time other researchers insist on the important role of cultural differences, because in different countries there are different rules of behavior, which influence negotiations. In order to reveal how the cultural peculiarities affect the negotiations, it is essential to compare the peculiarities of conducting negotiations in two different countries and investigate the distinctive features of the both. The cross-cultural studies can help resolve the issue connected with the controversy. In such a way you will be able to see and analyze the nation’s strong and weak sides and predict negotiations’ perspectives of this or that side. The main mission of cross-cultural studies lies in the comparison of likenesses and differences of the countries or nations. This research is very useful and can bring beneficial results. By means of cross-cultural studies we can compare and understand different values, patterns, attitudes and methods of the negotiations, which belong to different cultures. In order to create the hypothesis that refers to the influences and interferences of negotiations, it is necessary to consider and compare different cross-cultural studies. It is proved that every culture has its own unique method of negotiating. Some use direct or simple method of communication, and others apply typical indirect and complex way. It is important to take into account that every nation is unique and every nation has its own outlook. The same things and concepts can be understood differently by the representatives of different countries and this aspect should be taken into account. “the methods of negotiation vary with culture. Some people may adopt a more direct or simple method of communication, whereas others may adopt a method that is more indirect or complex. Each culture has its own standards, and one behavior that has a certain meaning in a certain culture could be interpreted differently in another” (Chang 2006: 135). For example, people may address each other differently. To call person by the family name can be considered rude in such countries as France, Japan, Egypt while in the U.S. and Australia it is pretty acceptable form of communication. One should remember that if you are going have to negotiate with a person or a group of people from different states you have to learn about their culture and traditions beforehand not to spoil the impression at once. If the impression is spoiled because of cultural differences, the results of negotiations may not be positive and desirable. Every culture has its principles and beliefs and they play an important role in the process of negotiating. If cultural differences influence or even program the behavioral peculiarities, it is clear that there is a barrier in communication process of people with different cultural backgrounds. There are a number of factors that suffer from communicative difficulties such as attitude,
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