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ophrenia has been linked to the affected parents passing the genes to the children (genetic factors), unusual metabolic conditions and abnormal brain conditions (Cohen, Kleinman, & Saraceno, 2002).
It is evident from research that kids with both parents free from schizophrenia have 1% risk of developing the illness. If either of the parents has schizophrenia, then the child`s risk of developing the disease rises to approximately 13%. If all parents have the illness, then there is a 46% chance of the child having the illness later in life. There is an 8% risk in cases where, all other relatives are free from the disease, but a brother or a sister to an individual has schizophrenia. An identical twin of an individual with schizophrenia is 48% at risk as compared to only 17% risk in case of dizygotic twins (Pfaff, 2013). First-degree relatives of an individual with schizophrenia are at a greater risk than second-degree relatives. In addition to genetic factors, other environmental factors such as general stress play a role in developing schizophrenia.
Brain examination through neuroimaging has shown brain abnormalities in schizophrenics (Harman, 2003). The ventricles are enlarged, and there are fluid-filled cavities in the deeper parts of the brain. These abnormalities are the cause of the accompanying symptoms. Besides, an imbalance in neurotransmitters, dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate may cause schizophrenia. Homocysteine accumulation due to deficiency of methionine synthase and cystathionine β-synthase causes schizophrenia. Other conditions such as hypocalcemia and hyperparathyroidism are linked to schizophrenia. Structural changes, copy number variations (CNV) in individual’s genome causes schizophrenia. CNV happens if the genetic material is lost, duplicated wrongly or inserted in a wrong manner. For instance deletion at 22q11 accounts for psychosis in 30% of cases. When 22q11 deletion occurs, essential genes that play a crucial role in schizophrenia such
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