Nobody downloaded yet

Drug Zafirlukast/bioavailability - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
This paper discusses how drug degradation, diffusion, partitioning (transport) and permeability influence the bioavailability of drugs in vivo and it will focus particularly on two derivatives (derivative 1 and derivative 2) in comparison to the parent drug Zafirlukast…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER92% of users find it useful
Drug Zafirlukast/bioavailability
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Drug Zafirlukast/bioavailability"

Download file to see previous pages Permeability measures the ability of the drug to cross the plasma membrane as a function of distance over time (Verbeeck, Blackburn & Lowen, 2003). Drug absorption is in turn determined by molecular properties of the drug. The study focused on the analysis of Total polar surface area (TPSA), molecular weight and Log P to investigate possible correlation between these properties and bioavailability. TPSA refers to the sum of all polar atoms on a drug molecule (Martin et al., 2003). Log P is a measure of the hydrophobicity of a molecule. Zafirlukast is an oral leukotrine (LTRA) antagonist, used for the maintenance treatment of asthma (Surhone, Timpledon and Marseken, 2010).
Drug absorption and bioavailability are vital drug factors that determine how much of the dosage is able to reach the patient’s systemic circulation. In an attempt to investigate how these factors influence bioavailability, the study focused on the three molecular properties that are TPSA, Log P and molecular weight. Drug molecules with a higher TPSA have the capability of forming the H- bond with water leading to higher solubility and hydrophilicity. However, hydrophilicity is a barrier against the process of drug molecule crossing the intestinal lining during absorption as it increases the permeability of the drug molecule. In contrast, to TPSA, Log P is a measure of hydrophobicity (Martin et al., 2003). Hydrophobicity enhances permeability by increasing the rate of the drug molecule crossing the intestinal lining resulting in a higher bioavailability. In addition, high molecular weight of a drug molecule slows the rate of drug permeability leading to low bioavailability.
From case 1 of the case study, we used GASTRO PLUS and determined that parent Zafirlukast had a calculated permeability of 0.453 times 10 -4 cm/s. A high molecular weight would show a decrease in bioavailability as deduced from experimental values. However, this does not correlate with the parent drug and the two ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Drug Zafirlukast/bioavailability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Drug Zafirlukast/bioavailability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1584521-drug-zafirlukastbioavailability
(Drug Zafirlukast/Bioavailability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Drug Zafirlukast/Bioavailability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words. https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1584521-drug-zafirlukastbioavailability.
“Drug Zafirlukast/Bioavailability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1584521-drug-zafirlukastbioavailability.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Chemotherapy and drug drug design
...anaemia is the bone marrow biopsy (Johnson-Wimbley and Graham, 2011). Causes of iron deficiency anaemia are low bioavailability from diet, decreased absorption and blood loss. Decreased absorption occurs also in atrophic gastritis, malabsorption syndromes (coeliac disease) and partial or total gastrectomy post-surgically. Pre-menopausal women can have the deficiency due to heavy menstruation (Johnson-Wimbley and Graham, 2011). Chronic blood loss of about 100ml / day can be missed as stools would appear normal. However loss of more than 5mg/day for a long time would exceed the compensatory mechanisms for correction of iron homeostasis. Patients consuming aspirin and nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs...
16 Pages(4000 words)Dissertation
Drug Debate
...? Drug Debate Polarized public opinion and role of media Introduction Debate on drugs has been fierce and public opinion has become increasingly polarized with either side staunchly sticking to their guns refusing to yield the smallest ground. In such a scenario it is necessary to analyze the basic issues involved and the role of media in this conflict of opinions and ideas. The differences of opinion between the opposing parties are based more on perspectives than anything else. While one party to the debate strongly believes drugs debate should be centered on social and health concerns, the other party equally strongly feels that it should be conducted around the tenets of Christian...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Drug Courts
...? The war on drugs in America, can be described in terms of the objective of challenging supply. Police forces, and even the military are involved ina multi-billion dollar program to arrest drug dealers and even break the supply chain from foreign countries like Columbia and Afghanistan. The resources spent on curbing supply are formidable, and the failure of the program ought to raise some questions about the objective. In economics, the equilibrium struck between 'supply' and 'demand' is one that defines a market under perfect circumstances. Conversely, when those forces are unequal, some economics focus on the 'supply side' of the equation, while others view the 'demand' side as that which needs to be focused on. The history... of...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Drug profile
.... The resulting Salbutamol sulphate (in red) is then released unto the urine. However, the rate of sulfation of bronchodilating R-Salbutamol is greater than the potentially toxic S-enantiomer. The former thus has a lower bioavailability than the latter (Walle et al., 1996). Sixty percent of the excreted drug is the metabolite (Albuterol, 2011). Sources of Variability in Salbutamol Metabolism The plasma levels of Salbutamol were found to be greater among asthmatics than healthy adults. This had been attributed to the higher intestinal permeability among asthmatics, or the lower amounts of inorganic sulphur needed for the conjugate reaction during the drug’s metabolism (Sjosward et al.,...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Drug Usage
...? Drug Usage of the of the Drug Usage Industry and drug usage Drug usage has been a serious concern amongst people belonging to different fields of life especially for working professionals. Drug usage significantly affects their health and affects the quality of work they put in at work. They fail to concentrate on their work and are also found absent from work. This problem is a serious concern for offshore companies who are pretty much concerned with the performance of the employees of companies working under them. They try to assess the usage of drugs among employees, so they can rectify the problem. Marconova is also one such offshore company that is concerned about the health and drug usage among employees of Heerema Marine... the...
2 Pages(500 words)Article
Azithromycin Drug
...pharmacokinteics. Azithromycin has a unique cellular kinetics that distinguishes it from other similar drugs such as erythromycin. It has an ability to penetrate into tissues and achieve higher intracellular concentration. As a result it has low serum concentration. Azithromycin has relatively more rapid absorption rates and from serum it is immediately distributed in tissues. Bioavailability of 37% is also superior to erythromycin. Initial studies demonstrated higher acid stability and first pass metabolism for azithromycin resulting in higher bioavailability. Elimination half life is about 36-40h, almost 10 folds better than other macrolides (James 216). Azithromycin higher potency and...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay
Prescription Drug Monitoring and Drug Abuse
...Prescription Drug Monitoring and Drug Abuse A severe problem in the United s over the past decade has been the abuse of opioid analgesics. Oftentimes, this abuse leads to addiction to the medications. This problem has grown even more severe over the past few years. The problem appears to have grown, at least in part, because of prescribing practices, easy access via the Internet, and drug formulation changes (Fishman, et al, 2000 and Simoni-Wastila, Tompkins, 2001). According to Compton and Volkow (2005), "Though the use of opioid analgesics for the treatment of acute pain appears to be generally benign, long-term administration of opioids has been associated with clinically...
12 Pages(3000 words)Article
Drug cartels and drug trafficking
...War against Drug Cartels and Drug Trafficking: The U.S. International Drug Control Policy Essay Submission Introduction Drug trafficking in the United States and elsewhere has become a major issue. The creation of international drug policies that are socially just can be very challenging, as other nations express different national interests, objectives, and policies. This essay talks about the growing epidemic of drug cartels and drug trafficking, and the effectiveness of current governmental policies. Attempts to obstruct the flow of illegal drugs from foreign countries into the U.S. have thus far failed. Furthermore, in recent times, global production of illegal drugs, particularly coca, marijuana, and opium, has increased... ...
14 Pages(3500 words)Essay
Drug Abuse / Drug Addiction
... Drug Abuse Drug Addiction Introduction The world, today, has become surrounded by drug abuse as well as drug addiction. This escalating disorder has become so common, that its truth is based on misconceptions that people have concerning drug abuse as well as addiction. This paper briefly provides an overview of drug abuse as well as addiction, and at the same time looks at the aspects of epidemiology, social problems, pathophysiology, as well as ethical issues that might arise with medical emergency responders. Drug abuse and drug addiction; exactly what does that imply and who is affected by it? There is confusion between drug addiction and abuse. Drug abuse happens when there is the usage of a substance, generally illicit drugs... or...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Drug Abuse and Drug Treatment
...Drug Abuse and Drug Treatment Drug Abuse and Drug Treatment Drug abuse is a serious social issue which requires constant research, control and interventions to help addicts and groups of people who are more likely to become drug users. There is a wide range of drugs which have different effects on people; in some cases, it is enough to try only once to develop strong adduction to the substance. In order to resists temptations and cope with addiction people often need professional help. It is the reason why there is a well-developed network of social organizations and community services which help people to rehabilitate...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Drug Zafirlukast/bioavailability for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us