Nobody downloaded yet

Pharmacology - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Pharmacology Question 1 1. Glyceryl trinitrate is a vasodilator that has an effect on both veins and arteries. Nitro lingual Pump spray is a dose spray that is metered and contains Glyceryl trinitrate. Each metered dose has a delivery of 400µg for every spray emission and the product conveys Glyceryl trinitrate as spray droplets below the tongue…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.2% of users find it useful
Pharmacology
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Pharmacology"

Download file to see previous pages To prevent exercise-induced angina and other precipitation-related conditions, at least one metered dose should be sprayed beneath the tongue shortly before the event. The highest number of Nitrolingual Pumpspray doses administered per day should be determined considering the full medical history of the patient, the angina severity, and any concurrent medication (Coyne 2008 p34). 2. The patient is complaining of discomfort and pain, which are angina’s main symptoms. It includes squeezing, pressure, tightness and burning in the chest, with the discomfort and pains starting from behind the breastbone. The patient is also complaining of nausea, shortness of breath, as well as a pale and cold skin, all which point to angina. The shortness of breath is common with elderly patients of angina, and the pain may make the patient feel as if he is suffering from indigestion or an uncomfortable feeling in the stomach. The blood pressure is also a factor to consider, as the patient was recorded to have 148mmHg, which is way above the recommended 100mmHg for a normal person. Additionally, the patient’s last oral intake was tea and biscuits, which indicates that within the previous 24 hours he did not consume sildenafil (Neal 2012 p34). Question 2 1. The main glyceryl trinitrate’s pharmacological action is that it relaxes vascular smooth muscle, and then vasodilates peripheral arteries and veins, with veins vasodilating more than arteries. Post-capillary vessels’ dilation that also includes large veins promotes blood peripheral flooding and reduces preload. A relaxation in the arteries significantly decreases afterload (arterial pressure and systematic vascular resistance). The reduced systolic wall tension and less ventricular radius reduce the oxygen requirements and the myocardial energy. This decrease in the filling pressures of the heart enhances subendocardial wall layer perfusion that ischemia threatens. Glyceryl trinitrate’s therapeutic doses may decrease diastolic, systolic and average blood pressure in the arteries. This helps in maintaining coronary perfusion pressure. However, should blood pressure reduce, or an increase in the heart rate lowers the diastolic filling time, it can be highly compromised (Coyne 2008 p34). 2. GNT is a prodrug that should be denitrated first so that it can produce NO (the metabolite nitric oxide that is active). Nitro vasodilators are nitrates that undergo denitration to produce NO in the body. NO being a potent activator of GC (Guannyl Cylase) with the help of mechanisms that are heme-dependent, its activation results in the formation of cGMP from cGTP (cyclic guanosine triphosphate) (Bersten 2009 p938). 3. When glyceryl trinitrate is administered sublingually, it is absorbed rapidly from the mouth’s mucosa and bypasses the liver to reach the vascular system. It is metabolized in the liver and other cells such as erythrocytes with cleavage of several nitrate groups. Numerous inter-individual as well as intra-individual variations can be seen after the sublingual administration, for the plasma concentration. Glyceryl trinitrate, together with its metabolites, is eliminated principally, with less than 1% excreted with no change (Broyles, Reiss & Evans 2012 p.437). 4. The application of glyceryl trinitrate in any form during acute myocardial infarction’s early days requires attention to be particularly paid to clinical status and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Pharmacology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1456757-module
(Pharmacology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words)
https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1456757-module.
“Pharmacology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1456757-module.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Pharmacology
Absorption of the drug is dependent upon the dose total, duration of exposure, concentration of the dose and the site of exposure (Kwan, 2001). The drug absorbed well in the gastrointestinal system but undergoes extensive first pass hepatic transformation.
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay
Pharmacology
The purpose of this research is to investigate the following: drugs from natural sources; plants as a source of drugs ; microorganism drug sources; uses of natural products in drugs; drug design by computer modeling and strengths of computer modeling in drug design. The computer modeling in drug design holds a massive potential for the pharmaceutical industry
13 Pages(3250 words)Essay
Pharmacology
tural configuration and physicochemical properties for providing a desired therapeutic effect, but it is not necessary that it possess the optimal molecular framework and properties to ensure delivery at the targeted site of action. In such cases only a small fraction of the
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
Cancer Pharmacology
He has given me great inspiration through his knowledge of Science research, giving me ideas on what to do further on in life. Paul has been a pleasure to work with, the assets I have gained have been invaluable and it has been experience, one of which I will never forget.
20 Pages(5000 words)Essay
Clinical pharmacology
Oral anticoagulants are subjected to pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. The former involves (1) Enzyme induction, (2) Enzyme inhibition, or (3)
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Pharmacology Practical
The estimated IC50 value obtained in this experiment was 15.2 µg/ml. The literature value of IC50 is 0.75µg/ml using pancreatic lipase as the enzyme (Yun 2010). The experimental value was higher than
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Pharmacology ( Paramedic )
This is because when Prasugrel’s cost effectiveness was studied against another drug, clopidogrel, the cost effectiveness of prasugrel was found to in an incremental ratio of $9727 per life-year gained (Roe et al. 2012, pp 1297-1309). Comparing this with
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Safety pharmacology
The development process of drugs incorporates the effective composition of evaluated chemicals thereby ensuring that they provide a solution to the disease by either killing the germ causing the discomfort thereby curing the disease or suppressing the effects of the external substance as is the cases with retroviral drugs thereby causing relief to the patients. However, certain drugs react differently with the bodies thereby causing more harm to the patients. The study of safety pharmacology therefore investigates such and seeks to develop safe drugs that do not inconvenience users by reacting adversely with their bodies.
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
PHARMACOLOGY
DEFINITION ESSAY: PHARMACOLOGY SUBMITTED BY: SUBMITTED TO: DATE OF SUBMISSION: INSTITUTE: Pharmacology is one of the multiple fields of study that fall under the broad umbrella of medicine. Other terms, closely related to pharmacology include pharmacy, pharmacist and pharmaceutical.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Pharmacology
(6 marks) Body System Parasympathetic Activation Sympathetic Activation Clinical Symptom / Condition e.g.Heart - Rate Decreased heart rate Increased heart rate Bradycardia Heart – Force of Contraction Decreases cardiac contraction Increases the force of contraction Cardio vascular disorders like distorted cardiac rhythm Pupil Constricts the iris muscles to allow little light to pass to the pupil (Shiota and Kalat, 2012, p.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Pharmacology for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us