Our website is a unique platform where students can share their papers in a matter of giving an example of the work to be done. If you find papers matching your topic, you may use them only as an example of work. This is 100% legal. You may not submit downloaded papers as your own, that is cheating. Also you should remember, that this work was alredy submitted once by a student who originally wrote it.
Physiology and Pharmacology. Smooth muscles are the muscles in the human body which are not under the conscious control of an individual that is they are involuntary. Smooth muscles are present in the most important operating systems of the human body…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Download file to see previous pages
The contraction and relaxation of these muscles involves interplay of ions. The contraction in the smooth muscle is led to by the interaction of calcium and calmodulin to activate the myosin chains by phosphorylating it. Actin and myosin are involved in the contractile process. An alteration in the potential of the membrane results in the initiation of action potentials which in turn leads to contraction. For actin and myosin to bring about contraction, the myosin light chain kinase (MLC kinase) plays a very important role. This is because it is the function of the MLC kinase to phosphorylate the chain of myosin for contraction to occur. The relaxation of smooth muscle is brought about by the elimination of the stimuli that result in contraction or by the specific function of substances like atrial natriuretic factor which prevent contraction from occurring (Guyton & Hall 2006; Ganong 2005; Webb 2003).
Relaxation of the smooth muscle needs a reduction in the amount of calcium within the cell and the working of the enzyme Myosin Light chain phosphatase. The reduction in the amount of calcium in the sarcoplasm results in the separation of the dephosphorylated heads of myosin from actin and thus relaxation occurs. Substances that attach to the receptors on the sarcolemma and lead to the activation of adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP (cAMP) further result in the activation of protein kinases. These protein kinases lead to the phosphorylation of the myosin light chain kinase making it lose its activity by the reduction of its attraction for the Calcium- calmodulin complex. Furthermore, substances that lead to a rise in the cyclic GMP (cGMP) also promote the functioning of protein kinases. The work of these kinases is to enhance the functioning of the myosin light chain phosphatase and affect the functioning of the calcium ion pumps. They cause the reduction of the calcium ion inside the sarcoplasm and hence lead to relaxation of the smooth muscle. Also an increase in the polarity of the sarcolemma results in the closure of the voltage gated channels of calcium. This prevents the entry of calcium and hence leads to the relaxation of the smooth muscle (Seifter 2005; Webb 2003). Smooth muscle relaxing drugs are used for the treatment of various pathological conditions. Nitrite and nitrate drugs which include glyceryl trinitrate, isosorbide dinitrate and sodium nitroprusside are a class of drugs which function in a similar manner as nitric oxide. The function of these drugs is to increase the amount of cyclic GMP. This results in the activation of protein kinases and subsequent reduction of sarcoplasmic calcium ions. This provides for the relaxation of the smooth muscles. These drugs are used for the treatment of angina and acute hypertension. Calcium channels blockers are another class of drugs which are used to relax smooth muscles of all types. These drugs prevent the entry of calcium in the intracellular compartment and thus lead to relaxation of the smooth muscles. Their main function is for the purpose of vasodilation of the vessels and verapamil and diltiazem are examples of these classes of drugs. Drugs that lead to the opening of
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Rugby League can be considered as a ‘collision sport’ with a high risk of injury. According to statistics, the injury rates maybe as high as 1.4 serious injuries per game. The injuries occur not just during competition but also during training activities. (Sports Injury Bulletin, n.d). The most common injuries are strains, sprains and contusions. Injuries to the lower extremity are the most common with the medial collateral ligament sprain or tear being the most frequent lower extremity injury. Upper extremity injuries, especially to the shoulder, hand and fingers are also very common. Although less frequent, injuries to the head and neck are not unusual, the injury rates being between 11.8% and 81.1%.
Gabbett... League can ...
D. Smooth muscle cells: Though smooth muscle cells are recruited by day 3 or 4 of the wound along with fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells, their main role is fibroplasia, synthesis of connective tissue matrix, tissue remodeling, wound contraction, and wound strength. They do not produce cytokines and chemoattractants (Sephel, 72). Hence this is not the correct answer. A 68-year-old man with prostate cancer and bone metastases presents with shaking chills and fever. The peripheral WBC count is 1,000/uL (normal = 4,000-11,000/uL). Which of the following terms best describes this hematologic finding? A. Leukocytosis: This is not the correct answer because leukocytosis means an increase in WBC co...
Gender and Anatomical Analysis of the Grande Pas de deux in Marius Petipa’s 'Sleeping Beauty'
Gender and physiology of the Grande Pas de Deux are intertwined with each other in such a way that they interact on various levels to carry out a number of themes at a time. The ideology of gender plays a crucial role throughout the whole episode of Grande Pas de Deux. In the first place, masculinity has been put into contrast with femininity with a view to highlight the visual effects of the superiority of a prince (the male partner of the ballerina) who rather inspires his audience to view Aurora and her nation from the standpoint of a liberator. As the original story of the ballet permits, the Grande Pas de Deux...
...Physiology of Addiction
Addiction of various substances which act on the central nervous system is a major social and health problem. When the person takes the drug or alcohol for the first time, the intention is only to ‘try’. The pleasure derived from these substances makes the individual take the drug again and again which triggers a reward circuit and causes addiction. Addiction is due to many complex neurobiological and physiological factors and understanding of these is important to treat and conduct research on pharmacotherapeutics. This article explores the physiological and neurobiological aspects of addiction to bring about an understanding of the behavior of addiction.
Pleasure, a complex...
Herceptin “consists of two antigen-specific sites that bind to the juxtamembrane portion of the extracellular domain of the HER2 receptor and that prevent the activation of its intracellular tyrosine kinase.” One major side effect associated with Herceptin is cardiotoxicity, resulting in congestive heart failure and cardiac-related death Although the mechanism by which Herceptin causes heart problems are little understood, there is a suggestion that HER2 has a role in embryogenesis. In the clinical trial I evaluated, Herceptin was used in conjunction with Taxotere for women with HER2 positive breast cancer. In this study, randomized patients received the control of AC-T (4 cycles of doxorubicin (A) and...
Pressure sores have remained a global health care program even to this day. There are several factors that contribute to the development of pressure sores. However, there is limited clarity on the exact influence of these factors on the development of pressure. Furthermore, just as there are different terms for the same health care challenge there are a wide range of interventions that have been used over a long period of time in the management of pressure sore, with some even extending into the exotic in the form of magic potions, as the search for the right intervention in the management of pressure sores carries on. The body of knowledge on pressure sores currently has expanded into a large volume of literature that is used...
... system. England: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Day, R., Paul, P., and Williams, B., 2009. SimAdviser access card with day. London: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Jakab, C., 2007. The respiratory system. London: Black Rabbit Books.
Jango-Cohen, J., 2004. The respiratory system. London: Lerner Publications.
Hlastala, M. and Berger, A., 2001. Physiology of respiration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Johnson, L., 2003. Essential medical physiology. London: Academic Press.
Johnson, K., 2012. Obstructive and restrictive lung disease. WebMD [online]. Available at: http://www.webmd.com/lung/obstructive-and-restrictive-lung-disease?page=2 [Accessed 08 December 2012.
Khurana, 2005. Textbook of medical physiology. India: Elsevier India.
...Clinical Sciences Table of Contents Clinical Sciences Table of Contents 2 A. Contrast The Altered Physiological Changes Seen With Normal Thyroid Physiology. 3
B. Based On Your Understanding Of The Changes Seen In This Woman What Would Be Your Differential Diagnosis? 4
C. What Complications Could Occur If This Swelling Increased In Size? 6
D. What Other Investigations Could You Carry Out To Confirm Your Diagnosis? Describe Three Of Them And Give Reasons For Your Choice. 9
A. Contrast The Altered Physiological Changes Seen With Normal Thyroid Physiology.
As per the scenario of the case, a 78-year old woman is suffering from asymptomatic thyroid swelling as a result of which there are certain physiological changes...
...Behavioral Pharmacology Lab Experiment
Behavioral pharmacology is a maturing science that focuses on drugs and human behavior. It is also referred to as psychopharmacology or neuropharmacology. Behavioral pharmacology seeks to check the behaviors of various organisms and come up with solutions for humans. Major drug in treatment of behavioral disorder contain Lithium Chloride (LiCl) and, so far, there are quite a number of successful cases. Notably, rats and guinea pigs are used as test subjects in most of medical tests and this experiment was in not exceptional. Researches carried out in behavioral psychology target mind altering drugs and their effects on the human behavior. This laboratory experiment focuses on various...
...Niemann-Pick Disease Physiology
Niemann-Pick Disease Physiology
Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is a group of rare, severe, inherited autosomal receding metabolic syndromes in which there is a dearth of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Chromosome groups 11p15.1-p15.4(1) have SMPD1 gene which determine this lysosomal enzyme, whose deficiency leads to accumulation of sphingomyelin, cholesterol and other lipids in the major organs like liver and spleen. Mutation of SMPD1 causes NPD types A and type B (Hamosh & McKusick, 2016). Type C is caused by mutation of NPC gene and is classified as C1 and C (Cvitanović-Šojat et al., 2014). In 1914, Albert Niemann published the original description of NPD. His work was later improved by Ludwig Pick...
7 Pages(1750 words)Assignment
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Physiology and Pharmacology"
with a personal 20% discount.