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Phramcology - Essay Example

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For each body system list the effect of activating the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems in the first two columns, then in the third column, describe a clinical symptom or condition that may be observed in someone with a highly activated parasympathetic nervous system…
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Download file to see previous pages System Sympathetic Affect Parasympathetic Affect Clinical Condition CVS 1. Heart rate Increased 2. Vasoconstriction of vessels of skin 3. Vasodilatation of skeletal and cardiac vessels 1. Hear rate Decreased 2. Vasodilatation of vessels Bradycardia Respiratory System 1. Increased respiratory rate 2. Bronchodilatation Constriction of Bronchiolar Muscles Difficulty in Breathing Urinary Tract 1. Relaxation of bladder Walls 2. Constriction of sphincters 1. Contraction of bladder Walls 2. Relaxation of Sphincter Polyurea Genital Tract 1. Ejaculation 1. Penile Erection Excessive Erection Eye Contraction of pupil Relaxation of Pupil Mydriasis GIT 1. Relaxation of smooth muscles 2. Contraction of Sphincters 1. Contraction of smooth Muscles 2. Relaxation of Sphincters Increased Secretions 1. Diarrhea 2. Stomach Acidity Skin 1. Excessive sweat Glands Secretion 2.Pilomotor Erection No prominent effects Dry, hot Skin Workbook Activity 2 For each drug; in the first column, identify ONE paramedic indication, then in the subsequent columns, list the molecular target involved in the identified interaction, the type of interaction (i.e. agonist / antagonist / allosteric modulator / inhibitor), and briefly explain how this interaction of the drug with the molecular target accounts for the observed therapeutic effect for that indication. Drug Paramedic Indication Drug Target Type of Interaction Therapeutic Effect Salbutamol Asthma ?2 adrenergic Receptor Agonist Bronchodilatation by activating beta-2 receptors in the lung. Adrenaline Shock Both Alpha and Beta Adrenergic Receptors Agonist Used Primarily in Cardiovascular Shock, Helps by activating Alpha receptors in the heart to increase its activity, also in the Lungs by activating beta-2 receptors in Asthma Fentanyl Analgesia Opioid receptors Agonist Not usually used now but acts mainly on the opiod receptors to cause Analgesia Ondansetron Nausea, Vomiting 5HT3 Serotonin Receptors Antagonist Used mainly during surgeries and chemotherapy and helps in decreasing Nausea and Vomiting Midazolam Seizures GABA receptors Agonist Emergency management of Seizures/Epilepsy, Act by activating GABA inhibitory receptors thus decreasing nerve impulse conduction and treating seizures Ipratropium Asthma Muscarinic Receptors Antagonist Acts at the Muscarinic Receptors in the lung to cause bronchodilatation and treating Acute Asthma Atropine Parasympathetic Poisoning Muscarinic Receptors Antagonist Used as a mydriatic agent in eye, also used in the emergency management of excessive parasympathetic activity in case of poisoning Adenosine Cardiac Arrhythmias Potassium and Calcium channels in heart Agonist at first while antagonist at the second receptor Used mainly in Cardiac Arrhythmias due to its affects on the Potassium (Agonist) and Calcium Channels (Antagonist) Ketamine Anesthesia NMDA receptor Antagonist Used to induce anesthesia in which the person remains conscious but is unresponsive (Dissociative Anesthesia) Naloxone Opioid poisoning Opioid Receptors Antagonist Used majorly in the emergency management of opium poisoning because of its rapid blocking of opioid receptors and reversing the affects Aspirin Anti Inflammatory Several Receptors in the body Agonist at some and antagonist at others Used in the treatment of Pyrexia and Inflammation Work Book activity 3 In this workbook learning activity you will need to recreate and complete the following table in your workbook, considering the drugs used in your clinical practice as a paramedic: In the first column, list FIVE receptors from different classes, then list their endogenous agonist(s) in the second column. In the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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