Free

Basic concepts of chemical bonding - Term Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Author’s Name Subject Date Fuel Cells Chemistry plays a vital role in the production of energy. Today, various chemical reactions are used as alternatives for fossil fuels in the generation of energy. This has been prompted by the fact that the use of fossil fuels is exhaustible and results in harmful emissions…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91% of users find it useful
Basic concepts of chemical bonding
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Basic concepts of chemical bonding"

Unlike other energy sources, no combustion is involved. This means that carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and other harmful gases are not produced. The chemical reactions generate heat and water. The water generated can be employed for other purposes (Renewable Energy World [REW]). This paper will focus on discussing the chemical components of the fuel cells. The fuel cell comprises a cathode, anode and electrolyte. It is also composed of an anode and cathode catalyst layer. The electrode is made up of a porous material. This material has high electron conductivity and zero proton conduction (Robert 684). Porous graphite thin layers have been used as electrodes in various fuel cells. The anode and cathode catalyst layers depend on the type of the fuel cell. Majority of the low temperature fuel cell utilize platinum while nickel is used in the high temperature cells. The electrolyte is a material that transfers ions. In a fuel cell, it is made up of materials that facilitate high proton conduction and theoretically zero conduction of electrons (Rob 10). The charge carriers between the anode and the cathode are made of different materials depending on the fuel cell type. This enables the conveying of electrons from the negatively charged anode to the positively charged cathode. This transfer of electrons facilitates the transfer of energy to an external pathway. The overall chemical reaction in the prototype fuel cell is 2H2+ O2 > 2H2O. In order for the reaction to occur in the fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen must react in order to generate electrons and form bonds (Larminine 43). At the anode electrode, hydrogen is dissociated into electrons and protons. The chemical reaction at the anode is 2H2 > 4H+ + 4e- where hydrogen is oxidized to release four electrons. These electrons are transmitted through an external pathway to the cathode. They can be used to generate energy thus drive an external device. At the cathode, oxygen is reduced, and dissociates to form water. The electrons that are transmitted through the external pathway and the protons which are transmitted through the electrode react at the cathode. This oxygen proton and electron reaction forms water. The chemical reaction at the cathode is 4H++ 4e- + O2>2H2O (Sorensen 55). Hydrogen (the fuel) enters fuel cell and is mixed with air; therefore, oxidation of the fuel. Hydrogen is broken down to electrons and protons. In the example of PAFC (phosphoric acid Fuel Cells) and PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cells), the positive charge ions move via the electrolyte across a voltage so as to generate electric power. The electrons and protons are then recombined with O2 so to generate water. As H2O is removed, more protons are drawn across the electrolyte. This leads to continued reaction; hence, further power production (Rob 20). In solid oxide fuel cells, it is oxygen radicals that move across the electrolyte, and not the protons. In molten carbonate fuel cells, carbon dioxide is used to react with oxygen and electrons, and combine so as to generate carbonate ions. This are then transmitted through the electrolyte. The hydrogen and oxygen used in these reactions is supplied from the air. Hydrogen can also be produced from natural gases, for example, gasoline. The natural gases are subjected to reforming reactions so as to generate hydrogen. Other sources of hydrogen, for example ammonia, require electricity to spilt hydrogen from the Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Basic concepts of chemical bonding Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1445004-basic-concepts-of-chemical-bonding
(Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1445004-basic-concepts-of-chemical-bonding.
“Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1445004-basic-concepts-of-chemical-bonding.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Basic Concepts and Techniques of Human Resources
...? Basic Concepts and Techniques of Human Resources Section Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) is considered as one of the biggest fast food organizationsin the world. Based in Louisville (United States), KFC conducts its business in almost 105 nations internationally (KFC, 2011). KFC provides delicious chicken food products to the customers continuing to enlarge its business in various regions all over the world simultaneously raising the acceptance level of the customers in the existing market to a sustainable degree. In western nations, KFC is often regarded as one of the leaders amid the fast food restaurants. KFC restaurants provide several fried and non-fried chicken foods such as sandwiches, chicken...
12 Pages(3000 words)Term Paper
Basic Concepts and Techniques of Human Resources
...? Basic Concepts and Techniques of Human Resources Section Overview of the Company McDonald’s is considered to be among the foremost foodservice retailers in the global market having over 33,000 local restaurants which serves almost 68 million people every day in 119 nations (McDonald’s, 2012). The company offers superior quality of food in a clean working environment to its worldwide customers simultaneously focusing upon several areas for the purpose of making continuous improvements in the industry as well as in the business market. The different areas include maintaining a sustainable supply chain procedure, offering nutritional products to the customers, preserving environmental responsibility and most importantly, serving... . It is...
12 Pages(3000 words)Term Paper
Three basic concepts
...? Three basic concepts In the present economic scenario companies are facing issues of low demand and high supply, but in this case the company BlueJay Manufacturing was facing a reverse problem; that means the demand for the product they were producing was high and it was so high that they could not meet the level of demand. BlueJay had a wholly owned manufacturing unit which the supply chain department of the company managed and monitored. However, the manufacturing unit of the company was not capable enough to meet the rising demands of the market effectively and efficiently. Here comes the option of outsourcing either the whole manufacturing unit or certain major business activities while would help...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
Basic Concepts of Criminal Law
...persons who interfere with their duties. Persons with authority in certain relationships, such as parents or teachers, may use force as a disciplinary measure, provided they do not exceed the scope of their authority. Punishment may not be cruel or excessive. It is within these confines that the use of such a weapon is to be understood and employed within the law to avoid criminal liability. References Fletcher, G. P. (1998). Basic Concepts of Criminal Law. Oxford University Press. Gorr, Michael, Sterling Harwood, eds. (1992). Controversies in Criminal Law. Westview Press. Gross, Hyman (2005, reissue). A Theory of Criminal Justice. Oxford University Press. Ormerod, David (2005). Smith and Hogan:...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Explaining Basic Accounting Concepts and Business Structures
...Basic Accounting Concepts and Business Structures The objectives of the essay are to provide appropriate answers to the following: Topic 1: Identify and describe the sources of generally accepted accounting principles. Identify source hierarchy and explain why the hierarchy is important. Topic 2: Describe effective accounting information using the qualities of accounting information from your readings this week. Topic 3: Describe how an accrual based accounting system is different from a cash basis of accounting. Topic 4: Describe the types of business structures and the defining features of each structure. Topic 1: Identify and describe the sources of generally accepted accounting principles....
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
BASIC CONSTITUTIONAL CONCEPTS and Brief a case
...Please prepare definitions of the identified "Basic Constitutional Concepts"?  The Preamble: an introductory ment that expresses the desire for democracy from the four fathers. Articles: written composited statements that are prevalent in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Amendments: the amendments or statutory laws make up the constitution. Federalism a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by nationalism and support country’s power vs. state. Delegated Powers: also called the enumerated Powers are the powers that are given to Congress in section eight of Article I of the constitution  Reserved Powers: powers that can be practiced by the government...
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper
Basic Concepts of Probabilty
...Basic Concepts of Probability Using Probability to Identify Unlikely Events. Consider an event to be unlikely if its probability is less than or equal to 0.05. (This is equivalent to the same criterion commonly used in inferential statistics, but the value of 0.05 is not absolutely rigid, and other values such as 0.01 are sometimes used instead.) Question Cell Phone while Driving: In a New York Times/CBS News poll, respondents were asked if it should be legal or illegal to use hand-held cell phones while driving. One hundred forty-one said that it should be legal, and 663 said that it should be illegal. What is the probability of randomly selecting someone who believes it should be legal to use a hand-held cell phone while driving...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
E-business Foundations and Basic Concepts
...E-business Foundations and Basic Concepts Table of Contents SEC 3 Purchasing process used in b2b and b2c. 3 Impact of professional buyers on the buying process 3 Purchasing variables analysis 4 SEC 2 5 Electronic transaction: how it reduces paperwork and delay? 5 How EDI has laid the foundations for b2b e-business? 5 Use of different electronic payment systems 6 SEC 3 7 Diagram for e-business supply chain 7 Advantages of e-procurement 7 Flow of information in a typical logistics operation 8 Benefits of electronic processes in integration of supply chain management 9 Reference List 10 SEC 1 Purchasing process used in b2b and b2c. The purchasing process used in b2b marketing is relatively complex than b2c...
9 Pages(2250 words)Assignment
Basic Concepts
...he has to think twice if he cheats (“what you did”) because it would entail his girl leaving him. Beyonce Knowles Single Ladies also explains the basic transaction of exchange in economics. That if you want something, a good or service or in this case, the girl, you should pay or put a ring on it. This is present in the lyrics “Cause if you liked it, then you should have put a ring on it/ If you liked it, then you shoulda put a ring on it”. Johnny Cash’s I Walk the Line is a little complex because it explains the concepts of inelastic demand. That is, the demand remains constant regardless of price. In the lyrics, it present in these lines that reads “Youve got a way to keep me on your side/ You...
1 Pages(250 words)Coursework
Basic Concepts and Theories of Modern Architecture
...Abstract Modern architecture is one that is reshaping the way that many look at buildings and art. The development of modern architecture and the different areas of thought that have helped to redesign the concepts of architecture have also led into several branches of thought for the artistic designs. This research paper will define the concept of modern architecture and the places that have used this concept for a changing perspective on design in the community. More importantly, there will be an understanding of the effectiveness of modern architecture in contemporary society. Basic Concepts and Theories of Modern Architecture Introduction Modern architecture is one that is continuing to redefine the way that communities... . ...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Term Paper on topic Basic concepts of chemical bonding for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us