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500 word paper on population growth using at least 8 separate references/sources - Essay Example

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The world population has been doubling over the recent years. The acceleration in the population is accompanied by a growth in the world economy (Dutta & Radner, 2006). The factors that affect the global…
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500 word paper on population growth using at least 8 separate references/sources
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Global Population Change Grade May, 05, Global Population Change The human population growth has been phenomenal over the past century. The world population has been doubling over the recent years. The acceleration in the population is accompanied by a growth in the world economy (Dutta & Radner, 2006). The factors that affect the global human population include fertility, mortality, and migration.
Fertility
The current rate of global growth is attributed to fertility. In the present time, the low fertility rate is evident in the less developed nations as compared to high fertility rate in the developed countries. This means that the population in the less developed countries is not stable and in the developed countries the population is roughly stable. The population growth is directly linked to the development of a country. Fertility is often controlled by the human aspirations and economics. The global fertility rates are on a decline.
In China, female employment is directly linked to fertility rate. An increase in the female employment leads to a drop in fertility globally (Fang, Eggleston, Rizzo & Zeckhauser, 2013). China boasts to be one of the most populous nations of the world. The Chinese government has sought various measures in controlling the population. One of the policies is the "one-child" policy where there is a limit for urban couples to having one child and a rural couple to have not more than two children (Peng, 2011). By controlling the rate of fertility, businesses or industries will have the inadequate manpower as the population will increase at a very low pace. Automation of tasks will, therefore, be necessary to replace manual labor.
USA recorded the lowest fertility rate in 2013. The government recorded a decline in the birth rates of the women aged 30 years and below (Gretchen, 2015). The group is of child-bearing age. The lowest record is as a result of the Great Recession witnessed in the country. As a result, women postponed getting children because of the economic downturn. Families realize that by increasing the size of the family, the standards of living decrease. Postponing of births is a control measure by the population (Ahn & Mira, 2002). This means that the available resources are shared adequately. Therefore, businesses will thrive, and the economy will grow at a steady rate.
Mortality
The mortality or death rate is a determining factor of population change. In the developed countries, the mortality rate is decreasing. The decrease is as a result of the use of modern medicine and preventive measures in the field of medicine.
China has in the recent past the number of deaths by promoting hospital births (Schettino & Gabriele, 2008). The decrease in mortality has not come easily. The Chinese government is strengthening facilities and training the health care providers by equipping them with the necessary skills and drugs so as to improve the healthcare provision. The use of midwives is no longer promoted. Families tend to work harder as they grow so as to increase the standards of living.
The mortality rate in the USA is worse off than in other countries. The number of babies that are dying before they attain the age of 1 is on the rise. The increase in infant deaths is as a result of the non-utilization of prenatal and preconception care by women (Haelle, 2014). There is a record of racial and ethnic disparities when it comes to maternal and infant outcomes in the country. Due to the increase in infant and maternal mortality, the US government is promoting antenatal care through encouraging women to visit health care centers during pregnancy. This has led to an increase in the number of healthcare centers to cater for the growing population.
Emigration
Emigration is the act of moving from ones native country and settling in another country for various reasons. Emigration can be in two different forms. Firstly, refugees are considered emigrates. Refugees are forced to leave their country for various reasons such as war, natural disasters, discrimination, and famine. Secondly, push factors lead to emigration. These are the characteristics of a geographical area that causes people to migrate.
Over the recent years, China faces an increase in the rate of emigration. The rich Chinese people are migrating abroad. The main reason is to settle in countries that have better economic conditions and better healthcare and social services (Kuhn, 2009). The movement of the population leads to the automation of tasks to replace the manpower. Hence, industries end up using machines instead of labor.
In the USA, the rate of emigration is on a decline. The current economy is suitable for most natives. The rate of migration to the USA is on an increase. The increase is attributed to the use of advance technology, improved healthcare and social services and a growing economy. This means that there is a scramble for the resources within the country as the population is rising. Businesses will have enough manpower to run them. As a result, the businesses will grow and thrive.
References
McKeown, A., & Kuhn, P. A. (2009). Chinese among others: Emigration in modern times. The Journal of Asian Studies, 68(3), 941.
Fang, H., Eggleston, K. N., Rizzo, J. A., & Zeckhauser, R. J. (2013). Jobs and kids: Female employment and fertility in china. IZA Journal of Labor & Development, 2(1), 1-25.
Peng X. (2011) China’s demographic history and future challenges. Science 333(6042):581-587
Ahn, N., & Mira, P. (2002). A note on the changing relationship between fertility and female employment rates in developed countries. Journal of Population Economics, 15(4), 667-682.
Schettino, F., & Gabriele, A. (2008). Child malnutrition and mortality in china and vietnam in a comparative perspective. Economic Change and Restructuring, 41(1), 29-59.
Dutta, P. K., & Radner, R. (2006). Population growth and technological change in a global warming model. Economic Theory, 29(2), 251-270.
Gretchen L. (2015). Is U.S. fertility at an all-time low? It depends. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/02/24/is-u-s-fertility-at-an-all-time-low-it-depends/
Haelle, T. (2014). U.S. infant mortality rate worse than other countries. CBS NEWS. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/u-s-infant-mortality-rate-worse-than-other-countries/ Read More
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