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How do perception cognition and emotion affect negotiation - Assignment Example

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To understand clearly how each of them affects negotiation, it is important to look distinctly at their meanings. This paper explores the meaning of each concept (perception,…
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How do perception cognition and emotion affect negotiation
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How do perception cognition and emotion affect negotiation To a greater extent, outcome of a negotiation is dependent onperception, negotiation, and emotion. To understand clearly how each of them affects negotiation, it is important to look distinctly at their meanings. This paper explores the meaning of each concept (perception, negotiation, and emotion), the roles they play in the negotiation environment and finally the outcome of it.
PERCEPTION
Perception can be considered to be the process by which a person connects with his or her environment. In layman’s term, perception is a sense-making process where individuals try to understand and interpret their environment so as to respond appropriately to stimuli. More often than not, perception can lead to various perceptual distortions that can affect the outcome of any negotiation and the times it can be in a negative way or error in subsequent communication. This is because perception depends on the perceiver’s present state of mind and comprehension Stereotyping, Halo effect, Selective Perception, and Projection are all perceptual distortions that in a given any negotiation environment and can lead to erroneous communication and build predispositions that will affect the outcome of a particular negotiation.
COGNITION
Cognition is a common tendency to obtain process information by filtering it through a person’s own dislike, like and experiences. In other words, it is an irrational escalation of a commitment. Cognitive bias just like perception has a negative effect on negotiation, and a good negotiator should always develop skills to manage it. Negotiator should be aware that cognitive biases and misperceptions that occurs as he gather and process information and outline them in a structured manner within his team and with his counterparts. In addition, careful discussion of the issues during negotiation and preference can minimize the outcomes of perceptual biases. This is critical aspects and if not properly checked may lead to a negative outcome of a negotiation. In addition, it is important to consider when and how to interact in order think properly while trying to comprehend information around our environment to enhance negotiation. Closely related to these aspects are the various types of cognitive biases that may result in an outcome of in negotiations: Irrational escalation of commitment, overconfidence, anchoring and adjustment, availability of information, issue framing and risk the winner’s curs, the law of small numbers, endowment effect, self-serving biases, reactive devaluation, ignoring others’ cognitions. In general terms, negotiation is a cognitive decision-making procedure involving the consideration of what are essential objects of the dispute and what are ideal behaviors to reconcile the “incompatible” interests.
EMOTION
Confusion has always arisen when differentiating mood and emotion in the context of negotiation. The truth is, both mood and emotion are different in specificity. For instance, emotion is channeled at more specific targets while mood is less intense but tends to be more enduring. Emotion and mood affect negotiation both in a positive and a negative way. Positive emotions have a positive outcome for negotiations as parties easily lead to integrative process while negative emotions normally have a negative outcome for negotiations. Positive feelings may, however, create a negative outcome. Thus, emotions can be used strategically by the negotiators as negotiation gambits.
As a conclusion, its worth noting that negotiation can be affected by perception, cognition, and emotion. Likewise issues of stereotyping and selective perception that affect negotiation outcome can best be avoided through keen understanding of the cultural environment. In addition controlling ones emotions is a key step in developing positive outcome in a negotiation, as well as proper use of emotions.
Work cited
Lewicki, Roy J. Essentials of Negotiation. McGraw-Hill,. www.axial.net. 2010.
Raftopoulos, Athanassios. Cognitive Penetrability of Perception: Attention, Action, Strategies, and Bottom-Up Constraints. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2004. Print. Read More
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