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Bacteriophages and Their Current Significance in Dairy Industry - Term Paper Example

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The aim of the paper "Bacteriophages and Their Current Significance in Dairy Industry" is to analyze the use of bacteriophages in the dairy industry. Additionally, the writer emphasizes the importance of measures aimed towards the control of milk microbial pathogens…
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Bacteriophages and Their Current Significance in Dairy Industry
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Download file to see previous pages Bacteriophages are viruses that destroy bacteria and occur widely in the environment (Breitbart and Rohwer 278) and food products (European Food Safety Authority 4). Bacteriophages infect specific bacterium and transmit their DNA into the bacteria’s cell and effectively hinders the ability of the bacterium to survive and reproduce thus reducing the number of bacteria in a specific location (European Food Safety Authority 4). Bacteriophage contamination remains a considerable culprit of low-quality products in the dairy sector, and they thrive even under strict cleaning and disinfection regimens, necessitating the use of combined strategies to minimize their undesired effects.
The majority of raw milk contains all classes of bacteriophages with some LAB phages being heat resistant ensuring that bacterial phages continue to be of importance in any dairy plant (McGrath et al. 451). Effective destruction of all phages requires using high-temperature time combinations, which render milk unsuitable to processing some dairy products especially cheese. Phage contamination in milk can arise from raw ingredients used in the dairy industry particularly during fermentation as lactic acid bacteria naturally present in milk may be a source of phages (Garneau and Moineau 2). Recycled and reprocessed ingredients during fermentation may add phages to the dairy product in low concentration, which would replicate causing product problems (Chopin 139). This may be eliminated by effectively heat treating any reprocessed ingredients starter cultures before use. Temperate phages can integrate into the bacterial chromosome resulting in lysogens, which may start lytic cycles during fermentation leading to hindered fermentation (Lunde et al. 721). The adaptive nature of phages may result in serious processing problems if a viable host is available as they would replicate very rapidly causing low-quality products and low productivity.   ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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