Nobody downloaded yet

The Arboreal and Cursorial Hypotheses of the Flight Origin - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
This report reviews the arboreal and cursorial hypotheses of the flight origin: whether flight evolved from the elevation down or from the ground up. The wings of birds, in particular their common progenitor Archaeopteryx lithographica, became the prototype of the flying device…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.5% of users find it useful
The Arboreal and Cursorial Hypotheses of the Flight Origin
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "The Arboreal and Cursorial Hypotheses of the Flight Origin"

Download file to see previous pages The arboreal hypothesis (also known as the ‘tree down’ hypothesis) refers to the idea that dinosaurs first gained flight by jumping from trees and acquiring flight as an evolutionary mechanism to avoid fatal accidents from this method. This hypothesis seems ‘intuitive’ because ‘flight evolving from an arboreal gliding stage would seem to be relatively easy’ (Padian & Chiappe, 1998, p15) and because the force of gravity ‘helps rather than hinders’ (Lewin, 1983, p38). Some studies, such as that of Feduccia (1993) suggest that the shape of the manus (the ‘hand’ portion of the forelimb) and the pes (the ‘foot’ portion of the hindlimb) of the Archaeopteryx exhibit evidence of perching, tree-dwelling and trunk-climbing due to the curvature of these anatomical elements. However, since this paper was published, another specimen of Archaeopteryx has been discovered (known as the Thermopolis specimen) which has almost complete pes, and thus there is now mounting evidence that the hallux (first digit of the pes) did not display curvature necessary for perching (Mayr et al., 2007).
If we consider the Archaeopteryx as arboreal, it is important to understand how and why a flight would have developed in this way. The original theory as stated by Othniel C. Marsh in the late 19th century was that Archaeopteryx would use wings as a balancing mechanism during leaps between trees, utilizing a gliding model to conserve energy. A common refutation to this point is that Archaeopteryx would utilize energy to climb trees (Mayr et al., 2007) but the terrestrial running would have taken more and as such gliding would be an evolutionary advantage (Feduccia, 1993). This, if taken as proof of the ‘intermediate gliding stage’ (Lewin, 1983, p38) that is so necessary for supporting the arboreal hypothesis, would help solve this challenge to evolutionary biology. A major problem with using Archaeopteryx as proof of the arboreal hypothesis is that it possessed very long, sharp claws or talons. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“The Arboreal and Cursorial Hypotheses of the Flight Origin Research Paper - 1”, n.d.)
The Arboreal and Cursorial Hypotheses of the Flight Origin Research Paper - 1. Retrieved from
(The Arboreal and Cursorial Hypotheses of the Flight Origin Research Paper - 1)
The Arboreal and Cursorial Hypotheses of the Flight Origin Research Paper - 1.
“The Arboreal and Cursorial Hypotheses of the Flight Origin Research Paper - 1”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF The Arboreal and Cursorial Hypotheses of the Flight Origin

Origin of flight of dinosaurs

...?The Origin of Flight in Dinosaurs The origin of flight is a topic that has been widely debated since the Ancient Greeks, and is one that has not yetbeen fully understood. There are several anatomical developments in modern birds and paleontological discoveries, such as the furcula used for skeletal bracing (Hui, 2002) that can be used to discover how flight is possible and give clues as to how the skill evolved. Using two main theories, it is possible to speculate whether flight evolved from the tree down (from a jumping, gliding, arboreal ancestry) or from the ground up (from a bipedal, leaping, cursorial ancestry). In the course of this essay, these two hypotheses will be discussed and contextualized by an investigation... . Whether this...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Flight physiology

...? Flight Physiology Introduction Flight physiology refers to the effects of flight on the mental and physical conditions of the crew members as well as the passengers of the flight. In general, the human body has to adapt to the different surroundings where they are exposed to. In regard to aviation or flights, the environmental changes are significant and include distinct changes in barometric pressure, significant difference in temperature, and there occurs high speed movement in three dimensions (Introduction to Aviation Physiology, n.d., p. i). There are several human factors or physiological principles that are capable of affecting the safety of flights. The present study focuses on one of these factors – the factor of stress... – and...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper


...Hypotheses It is hypothesized that mock jurors exposed to political media coverage of terror acts will be more confident of the defendant's guilt than jurors exposed to religious media coverage. More so, it is also expected that jurors will be more confident of Middle-Eastern defendant's guilt as compared to Anglo-American defendants, when the terror act is religious. Abstract There is a lack of empirical research into media-induced juror bias toward terrorist defendants. Four hundred North American female and male jurors with previous trial experience, and across ethnic backgrounds, were randomly selected for this research. Groups of 50 participants were...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Language Development Hypotheses

...bilinguals and pseudo bilinguals. The pseudo bilingual knows one language more than the other and doesn’t use the second language in communication, the genuine bilingual masters both at an early age and feels comfortable communicating with both languages. When researchers distinguished between fluent bilinguals, they found out that fluent bilingual children develop more flexible mental capacities and frequently out-perform limited bilinguals of the same national origins as well as English monolinguals. What sets these kids apart from any second language learner is that they learn both languages in the period from 1-5 years, the primary language learning period. In addition to that, unlike older children that are tutored...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

Research Questions & Hypotheses

...(statistical/quantifiable) solution. The process of information collection could be determined by survey research, experiment, quasi-experiment, single subject experiments and correlation. The information/data collected provides quantitative attributes of a population which are measured to draw a conclusion. Research Questions 1. Does adding to course portfolio (doctoral programs) lead to increase in growth? 2. What is the relationship between quality of education and growth in students’ enrolment? 3. Could promoting the sports lead to increase in growth? Research Hypotheses 1. Launching a new degree program significantly increases a University’s growth. 2. Quality of education is significant to increase in a...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Hypotheses- Quantitative Analysis

...patient. However, in order to improve the health outcomes of a patient, hypothesis is applied as a method of statistical inference. Data is analyzed by physicians and then undergoes through cognitive processes such as the hypothetico-deductive approach. This approach involves various diagnostic reasoning where the medical experts first generate diagnostic hypotheses. They then make some data collection in order to refute or confirm their hypotheses. In addition, physicians may use a backward or forward reasoning. However, the backward reasoning, which involves working backward from the hypothesis, is different from forward reasoning. This is because medical experts depend on a wide set of heuristics to...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment


... September 17, Hypothesis Introduction Market tests focus on gathering relevant actual decision making data. The paper explains the various market test information needed to help generate higher future sales outputs. The paper explains the use of the gathered market test data on business decision making activities. The market test information enhances business decision making priorities. Market Test information A market test can be done to determine whether the company is able to reach the $75,000 sales objective (Pride, 2014). First, the market test will indicate the products’ current selling prices. Compared to setting prices that are lower than the competitors’ selling prices, the company must exert extra efforts to generate... September ...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Hypotheses Exercise

... Hypothesis about Alcoholism amongst Adolescents A hypothesis refers to an educated guess and contains the information that is known primarily about a given topic. There exist a rift and the same time a valid connection between the generation and the evaluation of the hypothesis. The difference, however, merits all the steps in detailed and merited examinations. In addition to that, the proposition induces further basis and foundations for reasoning (Marshal, p 570). In the end, the link directs into critical thinking that finally yields investigation to the known facts. Therefore, it’s an opinion that does not necessarily need to contain truth and the truth about it is the genesis of the formulated investigations. Take... Hypothesis about...
1 Pages(250 words)Coursework


...of the few numbers of people trained on flying the airlines, only a small percentage are willing to be pilots. Despite there being a pilot shortage in the fight industry, there are also rules that limit the number of hours that a pilot can fly a plane before being replaced. Jill argues that the pilot salaries are also a limiting factor towards increasing the number of pilots (Schramm retrieved from The shortage has led to flight cancellations since more often there are no available pilots to fly the plane. Solsvig, an aircraft manager at the North Dakota airport claimed that the only way to solve the problem was...
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment


..., on average, the starting salaries are very low. The educational efforts that one inputs do not match the salary that is provided. This fact keeps away the people who would be willing to train as pilots. Other careers that are in the same level as the pilot career such as medicine and architecture are well paying. The bright students will opt to study medicine and architecture rather that piloting since they expect to have better salaries from the start. Most airlines have failed to address the problem claiming that raising the salaries will lead to increasing travel costs for passengers. However, failing to address one problem has caused bigger problems such as delayed flights that chase away customers (Bachman 1). Most...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic The Arboreal and Cursorial Hypotheses of the Flight Origin for FREE!

Contact Us