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Contributions of Golden Age of Microbiology - Coursework Example

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This work called "Contributions of “Golden Age of Microbiology” describes the exact duration of the golden age of microbiology. The author takes into account the major contributions in this golden age by two eminent scientists, Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch, the main technologies…
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Download file to see previous pages A vaccine is a formulation that contains a component of the disease-causing organism in a weakened form, which on the administration to an individual can bring in an immune response against the disease. “The first experiment in immunization was performed by Louis Pasteur, a French chemist turned biologist, on July 6, 1885, when he treated a young boy against rabies. He extracted fluid from the spinal cord of a rabid dog and injected it in small amounts to the body, who was bitten by a rabid dog.” (Vaccine development: History and progress of vaccine development, n.d.). The success of rabies vaccination by Louis generated an interest in the scientific world for further research to find vaccines for other diseases. A subcutaneously administrated vaccine was developed by Ferran in the year 1894. The 20th century saw an enormous rise in the area of vaccine development and the period between 1950 and 1970 is projected as the golden era of vaccine research. “In 1954 Jonas Salk developed a killed poliovirus as a vaccine that decreased paralysis cases from 20,000 in 1952 to 1,600 in 1960. The oral polio vaccine was developed by Alfred Sabin which was easy to take and was successful in eliminating the spread of polio.” (A history of vaccine development, 2007). The development of the smallpox vaccine during the 1960s was a success story that removed the disease from the face of the earth. In recent times cancer vaccine has also reached the global market, the Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and it is globally the second most prevalent cancer in women. HPV vaccines produced by companies like Merk and Gardasil have proved to be effective in providing long term immunity against infection by HPV. The hunt for a potent HIV vaccine is still under research, clinical trials are under progress to prove the safety and efficiency of the vaccine. “In the 21st-century vaccines have made it possible to eradicate the scourge of smallpox, promise the same for polio, and have profoundly reduced the threat posed by other diseases such as whooping cough, measles, and meningitis.” (Vaccine for the 21st century: A tool for decision making, 2010). 
Robert Koch has a significant contribution to the development of microbiology in the golden age. He put forward principles and methods to study microorganism which is used in the modern world. “In 1877 Koch published an important paper on the investigation, preservation, and photographing of bacteria. In his paper, he described his method of preparing thin layers of bacteria on glass slides and fixing them by gentle heat.” (Koch 2010). These techniques later turned to be the milestones in bacteriology in identifying and studying microbes. The credit for inventing the hanging drop technique also goes to Koch, which is used widely for cultivating bacteria in drops of nourishing solution. He associated diseases with microorganisms and led to the development of modern microbiology. “Koch formulated rules for the control of epidemics of cholera are still the basic procedures used by modern epidemiologists and medical researchers : (1) Identify a specific organism, (2) obtain a pure culture of that organism (3) reproduce the disease in experimental animals using the pure culture, and (4) recover the organism from the infected animal.” (Pearce 2004). ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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