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Some of the well-known physicians and thinkers are Al-Razi and Ibn Sina and they developed a healthcare system with hospitals running for 24 hours and treatment based in Ayurveda and Unani (Allsen, 1984, p, 67-69). Another renowned Islamic scholar Ibn Sina authored Canon of Medicine a seminal work that was printed many times and read in Europe. The scholar Ibn Al-Haitham wrote extensively on the subject of ophthalmology while Ishaq Ibn, another scholar wrote a treatise Practical Medical Deontology. Al-Tabari wrote, another scholar wrote the Paradise of Wisdom that linked diverse subjects namely, psychotherapy, counselling, psychology and medicine (Atiyeh & Hayes, 1992, p. 45-61).
The scholar Zakariya Raziwas who served as the chief surgeon in the hospitals of Baghdad and Cairo, wrote the well-received Ahlaq al-Tabeeb. This was a book on medical ethics in which he discussed the model role of the physician and specified the methods to distinguish between measles and small pox and the method of treating these diseases (Lombard, 1975, p. 123-128). Raziwas also wrote the kitab-al Hawi fi al-tibb also called as the Comprehensive book of medicine with 23 volumes where each volume discussed specific parts of the body and their related diseases (Sonn, 2011, p. 81-89). This book was used as a textbook in several European universities until the seventeenth century. Another book he wrote was the Kitab Tibb al-Muluki where he discussed dieting and moderation and the manner in which diseases can be controlled through dieting (Meri, 2005, p. 63).
Pharmacy: Medieval Islam produced many scholars who wrote about medicines obtained from plants and body parts of various animals. The Islamic scholar Yuhanna b. Masawayh wrote a treatise on the medicinal effects of Cannabis sativa Linnaeus or hemp and Papaver somniferum Linnaeus, poppy. He suggested using the drug to relieve pain from fevers, eye and toothaches
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