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Bio - Assignment Example

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Anabolism is the process in which complex organic molecules are built up from simpler organic molecules e.g. conversion of protein to amino acids. While catabolism is the breaking up of complex organic molecules into equivalent simpler organic molecules e.g. conversion of…
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Download file to see previous pages ADP is made up of two phosphate molecules while AMP is made up of a single phosphate molecule. Combination of two molecules of results in the production of AMP. As shown here 2ADP→ATP + AMP
viii. Coenzymes refers to specific organic compounds that must be present for certain enzymes to do catalysis process e.g. nicotine adenine dinucleotide. Cofactor are specific organic compounds that are only requited to change the rate of catalysis i.e. to increase the rate of catalysis.
Step 1 - In the first step, there is conversion of glucose to fructo-1, 6-biophosphate using ATP. At the same time, there is trapping of glucose inside the cell which is then converted to an unstable form that can easily be cleaved to 3 – carbon units. The formed fructo-1, 6-biophosphateis then cleaved into glycerladehyde-3-phosphate.
x. Organisms respire without oxygen through incomplete breakdown of glucose in the absence of Oxygen. There causes a reduced oxidation of NADH to NAD+ and the process of glycolysis become ineffective. Instead, reduction of pyruvate to lactate generates NAD+, leading to production of only two ATPs of energy.
i. Autotrophs are organisms that use inorganic materials and basic energy sources to manufacture organic molecules that contain energy. A prime example is plants. Plants use oxygen and sunlight to manufacture food through the process of photosynthesis.
xi. The reaction centre is the site on which chemical reactions take place. It is a complex of numerous pigments, proteins and other co-factors that act together to perform the main energy conversin reaction processes of photosynthesis.
xiii. Photosystem 2 appears before and produces ATP while photosystem 1 occurs after Photosystem 2 and it produces NADPH. Photosystem 1 is more sensitive to 700 nm of light wavelengths while photosystem 2 is sensitive to 680 nm of light wavelengths.
xxi. The type of reactions used in the Calvin cycle are fixation of Carbon dioxide into RuBP ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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