Nobody downloaded yet

Polymers - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Different organisms use monosaccharides, such as glucose, to build several different polymers or polysaccharides: starch, glycogen, and cellulose. Each of them molecules is synthesized by dehydration synthesis, but there are subtle differences in the covalent bonds that lead to different overall structures and functions…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.7% of users find it useful
Polymers
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Polymers"

Download file to see previous pages Glycogen also is used for long term energy energy storage, but only animals. Animals can hydrolyze this polymer to obtain glucose. Starch and glycogen have many hydrogen and oxygen rich functional groups which make them reactive with water, during the hydration and condensation processes which created and store energy within the body. Cellulose has a different king of bond between monomers, forming linear polymers that are cross-linked by hydrogen bonds with other linear chains. Cellulose is the principal structural molecule in the cell walls of plants and algae. Animals cannot hydrolyze this polymer to obtain glucose without the help of intestinal bacteria, it is referred to as fiber.
Another characteristic of monosaccharides is that they can act as mild reducing agents. This is because the aldehydo group that is present can be oxidized to form a carboxylic acid group, or in the presence of a base, a carboxylate ion group. Fructose can also act as a reducing sugar, even though it has a ketone group instead of an aldehyde group. Under basic conditions, the fructose molecules can, essentially, have the location of the carbonyl bond switched to convert them into a glucose molecule. This occurs in a number of steps involving removing hydrogens from the #1-C and its oxygen and moving them to the #2-C and its oxygen.
Glucose is heated with Benedict's reagent (CuSO4, NaOH, a...
Glucose is heated with Benedict's reagent (CuSO4, NaOH, and tartaric acid) to form a brick red precipitate. Sucrose does not react under these conditions. Fructose does form a red precipitate with Benedict's reagent.
Carbohydrates that contain aldehydes or a-hydroxymethyl ketones can be oxidized by Cu(II) ion and are classified as reducing sugars. They reduce the Cu(II) ion to Cu(I).





- Relate the behaviour of the amino acids / proteins under test to their structural characteristics.

Biuret Test for Proteins: Biuret reagent is a light blue solution which turns purple when mixed with a solution containing protein. The purple color is formed when copper ions in the biuret reagent react with the peptide bonds of the polypeptide chains to form a complex. Because amino acids contain a free amino group, they are readily detected with ninhydrin reagent which reacts with free amino groups to form a purple or violet colored substance. Ninhydrin reagent can also be used to detect proteins, but the proteins must be heated or digested to hydrolyze the protein into free amino acids.


- Relate the behaviour of the lipids under test to their structural characteristics.

In lipids carbon and hydrogen predominate because there is very little oxygen which makes them more of less hydrophobic. Diverse types of lipids have different roles including energy storage and structural and metabolic functions. Fats are polymers of fatty acids (usually three) and one glycerol molecule, formed by dehydration reactions, and are called triglycerides or triacylglycerided. Fats are tremendous sources of energy and can store approximately 2 times better than polysaccharides. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between carbons, and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Polymers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Polymers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1530624-polymers
(Polymers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
Polymers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1530624-polymers.
“Polymers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1530624-polymers.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Polymers

Supramolecular Polymers based on Hydrogen Bonding

...?Supramolecular Polymers based on Hydrogen Bonding Introduction A supramolecular polymer refers to any kind of self-assembly that results in the creation of polymer-like aggregates occurring through reversible interactions between one or more kinds of components (Martin & Giacalone 2009). Because of the reversible interactions, these polymers can thermally equilibrate with their monomers, unlike conventional polymers (Jadzyn et al. 2006). These polymers are responsive to external stimuli. The mechanical properties of these polymers respond strongly to changes in solvent or temperature because of their reversible...
14 Pages(3500 words)Essay

Physical properties of transparent optical polymers

...?Chapter 5 Physical Properties of Transparent Optical Polymers 5 Introduction Owing to their optical properties, many transparent polymeric materials have found widespread use in a variety of optical applications. Transparent polymeric plastics such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC) have replaced glass in several applications including optical focusing mechanisms (Optical Polymers International, 2010). This is because they are lighter, have higher workability, better impact resistance, and can be easily colored. The physical properties of glass are compared in figure 5.1. Fig. 5.1: Comparison of physical properties of glass and plastics (Weber, 2003). Commonly used optical...
14 Pages(3500 words)Dissertation

Introduction on polymers

...?Polymers Polymer is a Greek word with the first part ‘poly’ meaning many while ‘mer’ meaning part. A polymer is therefore a substance with many parts. Polymers are a large molecule built by many repetitions of smaller parts. The parts are held by simple chemicals units which form a covalent bond. In most cases the repetition is linear and a chain is built up from its links while others the chains are branched or interlinked to form a three dimensional networks (Sinha, 2004, p3). Types of polymers The two main types of polymers are thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Thermosetting polymers the...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Abu Dhabi Polymers Company Limited

...?Abu Dhabi Polymers Company Limited (Borouge) History of the Company Borouge is a primary supplier of pioneering, value creating plastics solutions. The company was founded in 1998 and was set up as a joint venture between Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) and an Austrian-based company, Borealis (Borouge, 2001). ADNOC is a major Gulf oil company, while Borealis is a top European plastics provider. Borouge currently has headquarters located in both the United Arab Emirates and Singapore. Worldwide, Borouge has a workforce of 1,600 people, who represent over 40 nationalities and serve customers in more than 50 countries throughout the Middle East, the Asia-Pacific region, the Indian sub-continent, and Africa (Company...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

High temperature polymers

...?Jumana khouri Oct3rd High Temperature Polymers Polymers or most basically known as plastics are found almost anywhere and everywhere.There are plastics used for various applications. This paper discusses the special type of polymers -the high temperature polymers, its definition, properties, design, structure, tests and the various applications in the many industries today. Also specified here is one of the types of the polymer, the polyimide, its properties and many applications in many industries. Finally, this paper discusses the high temperature polymers in its futuristic possibilities in world-wide industries application and the...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Mechanical testing of metals and polymers

...? MECHANICAL TESTING OF METALS AND POLYMERS By Introduction This report documents the laboratory procedures done on various engineering materials comprising ferrous metal and polymers. The ferrous metal investigated in this study was steel with carbon content in the range of between 0.1% and 0.85%. Conversely, the polymers used in the study are PVC and Polypropylene. The investigation surrounds the argument that the chemical composition of a material has far reaching impact on the mechanical properties of such material. Therefore, the investigation sought to bolster this argument by carrying out a test on mechanical properties of steel and polymers, which include...
5 Pages(1250 words)Assignment

Mechanical testing of metals and polymers

...? MECHANICAL TESTING OF METALS AND POLYMERS By Introduction The procedure of various engineering properties which include polymers and ferrous metal is contained in this lab report. Steel with a carbon content of that range from 0.1 percent to 0.85 percent is the ferrous metal, and the polymers included the PVC and polypropylene that were under investigation in this experiment. The experiment was because a materials mechanical property is extremely dependent to the materials chemical composition. The experiment was then sought to strengthen the fact by caring out test on steel’s and polymers mechanical properties, which included tensile strength, hardness, impact test,...
5 Pages(1250 words)Assignment

Polymers

...Polymers Polymer -- which is derived from the Greek word polus, meaning ‘many’, and meros, meaning ‘parts’ -- is basically identified as a large molecule that consists of ‘monomers’ or several repeating subunits brought together in chain through the process of polymerization which can be carried out by addition of monomer units or condensation of ‘mer’ units via stepwise intermolecular chemical reactions. Generally, polymers are classified as either natural or synthetic where the water-based natural polymers may be yielded via extraction while the oil-based synthetic polymers may be derived from petroleum oil and synthesized through methods conducted by...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Biodegradability of polymers

... Biodegradability of Polymers Biodegradation or biotic degradation is a chemical process which involves breakdown of materials such as polymers. The process of biodegradation is carried out by various by organisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae. Bacteria responsible for biodegradation are bacillus, pseudomonas, klebsiella, actinomycetes, nocardia, mycobacterium and flavobacterium. Fungi used in biodegradation are sporotrichum, talaromyces, thielavia, candida, ganoderma and aerobasidium. Biodegradation is a degradation process which uses biological activity. The core process occurring in biodegradation is the breakdown and assimilation of polymers by the action of microorganisms resulting in production of broken down products... . The...
3 Pages(750 words)Term Paper

Viscosity and polymers

...Mn’ is the number average molecular weight of polymer in the sample after cleavage. Mno is the number average molecular weight of the polymer in sample before cleavage. The molecular weight of the monomer unit = Mo. Change in the average molecular weight is expressed as a ratio ƒ. Ƒ = Simplifying Ƒ = (Mo/ Mn’ ) – (Mo/ Mno) Multiplying both sides by Mv Mv Ƒ = [(Mo/ Mn’ ) – (Mo/ Mno)] Mv But Mv/Mn = S From equation 17. Therefore, Mv Ƒ = MoS’ - Moso Ƒ = (MoS’ - Moso)/ Mv Factorizing, Ƒ = MoS (1/ Mv’ – 1/Mvo) Question 3 An experiment which measure the direct force generated during polymerization of the protein or biopolymer molecules using an optical trap can be conducted. Question 4 For PVOH, whose...
1 Pages(250 words)Lab Report
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Polymers for FREE!

Contact Us