Estrogen Signaling - Essay Example

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Steroid receptors have been traditionally classified as type 1 nuclear receptors. With reference to models of estrogen signaling, this paper explains the basis of this classification and critically evaluates why this categorization is thought to be increasingly redundant…
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Estrogen Signaling
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"Estrogen Signaling"

Download file to see previous pages Estrogen is one of the important sex hormones. It has definite physiological roles, the most important of which are sexual and reproductive functions. Other biological roles include involvement in various functions attributing to the cardiovascular, immune, central nervous system and musculoskeletal systems (Gustafsson, 2003; cited in Heldring, 2007: 906). The body produces many estrogen types, the most potent of which is 12- beta estradiol or E2. E2, along with its 2 metabolites estriol and estrone exerts various biophysiological effects in the body (Heldring, 2007). These effects are mediated through binding of the molecules of estrogen to specific estrogen receptors. Currently, 2 specific estrogen receptors have been identified and they are ER-alpha and ER-beta. These receptors belong to class-1 nuclear receptors (Petterson and Gustafsson, 2001; cited in Heldring, 2007: 907). Binding of the ligands to these receptors induces certain conformation changes in the receptor which in turn leads to a series of changes in the receptors and ultimately ends in the preinitiation complex. The changes which occur in the receptors are migration of ER from cytosol to nucleus, dimerisation of the receptor molecules, binding and interactions between dimerised receptor protein and specific sequences of DNA, recruitment of various coregulator proteins concerned with the biological action and also recruitment of various transcription factors (Paech, Webb, Kuiper, et al,1997; cited in Heldring, 2007: 908). ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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