Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Recessive Lethal Mutations - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
George Streisinger pioneered the potential of zebrafish as a vertebrate organism suitable for forward genetics screening research, about twenty years ago. In the laboratory environment zebrafish are easily handled…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.2% of users find it useful
Recessive Lethal Mutations
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Recessive Lethal Mutations"

Download file to see previous pages Recessive Lethal Mutations

In order to understand how genes specify a biological process of both phenotypes that can occure and the number of genes involve, it is important identifying the mutated genes. Because high mutation frequencies can be obtain with chemical mutagens. Actually the mutation frequency can vary widely for different loci, chemical mutagens can induce mutation in most genes. With all these advantages, there is still some disadvantage associate with it because cloning mutant gene is difficult, as these chemicals usually cause point mutations. Positioning cloning chemical induce mutants are made feasible over time, but cloning remain expensive and laborious in vertebrate animal with large genomes. A less effective approach to chemical mutagenesis that greatly speeds the cloning of mutant genes is known as insertional mutagenesis. The integration of exogenous DNA sequences into a genome can be mutagenic, and the inserted DNA serves as a tag to clone mutated genes, though fewer lesions are obtained per genome and also insertional mutagens seldom, if integrated randomly into host DNA.

When large-scale genetic screening is carried out, it results in successful identification of many genes that define embryological pathways. However, two scientists from Boston and Tubingen are inspired by the remarkable characteristic of the zebrafish, along with the first zebrafish genetic screening identified mutant embryonic phenotype in F3 generation. Some of the mutated developmental genes identified in the two screens have been cloned, which assist in the dissection of the gene network that controls the early development. For example, the mutated genes in the endoderm mutants such as casanova, bonnie and clyde, and faust can be assembled into a genetic pathway that have been shown tom encode transcription factors that are necessary for endoderm formation. Analysis of proviral insertions has revealed that different germ cell are infected independently in F1 progeny and with high titer virus stocks they often have multiple integrations and any given insertion is transmitted mosaically to between 1% and 40% of the F1 pronegy. Individual F1 fish can inherit multiple insertion and proviral insertions in F1 fish and transmitted in a mendelian fashion.
When outcrossing founder fish, identified F1 fish with single proviral insertion, generated an F2 family for each insertion, and then inbred transgenic F2 fish and examined F3 progeny to identify mutation. This system is not too efficient for large-scale screen because each insertion was inbred individually, therefore ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Recessive Lethal Mutations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Recessive Lethal Mutations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
“Recessive Lethal Mutations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Recessive Lethal Mutations

He similarities and differences between autosomal recessive and sex-linked recessive conditions

... By using suitable examples with rationale, discuss the similarities and differences between autosomal recessive and sex-linked recessive conditions. Autosomal recessive conditions manifest themselves only when an individual is homozygous for the affected allele that causes a certain condition. The alleles that cause these conditions are not found on the sex genes (the X or Y chromosomes), and the affects are generally masked in the heterozygous parents who possess both a normal, dominant allele and the affected recessive allele. Only offspring with both recessive alleles, meaning both parents are heterozygous carriers of the recessive genes will be affected. These disorders are present in only about 2.5 per 1000 live births... , and will not...
15 Pages(3750 words)Essay

What Causes Cancer Mutations

...? “Cancer” Introduction Cancer is known as malignant neoplasm, the hallmark characteristic involves uncontrolled proliferation of cells. Under normalconditions cells grow, divide and die, but in a genetic defect called mutation occur in cancer cells leading to the formation of an abnormal DNA. As genes are the basic control machine of the cells, alteration of any kind may bring devastating consequences, or malignancy. When compared with the normal cells, where damage of any kind is taken care by the repair system, tumor cells do not have any repair mechanism for the damaged DNA and there is a constant proliferation of cells without displaying senescence hence, generating a series of abnormal cells, with altered cellular pathways... for...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay


...Mutations A mismatch error during replication could result in hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer, or HNPCC. Mismatch repair’s main role is the maintenance of genomic stability via removing errors from DNA after replication (Errol et al 43). The repair pathway has been linked to colon cancer in humans via association between MI in colon tumours found in HNPCC families. MIs are short and repetitive sequences that are incorrectly copied by the DNA polymerase since the template and daughter strands found in the region are prone to misalignment. These events culminate in the creation of loops possessing extra-helical bases that can produce frame-shift mutations unless they are reversed by mismatch repair...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Mutations of Drosophila

...segments (7 in number), as compared to male drosophila with only five (5) segments. Diagrammatically represented as below: Drosophila Crosses Genetic notation In this case study, the normal fly was categorized as a wild type while the other type of fly exhibiting a phenotypic mutation was categorized as mutants. Mutants were given names that denoted the type of mutation the fly exhibits. For instance, the mutant ebony had a much darker body than the wild type fly. Construction of a chromosome map in Drosophila A chromosome map was constructed form three breeding results using testcrosses that involved flies heterozygous at more than one locus, and taking into account the frequencies of crossover between...
4 Pages(1000 words)Lab Report

P53 mutations and Cancer

...p53 mutations and the role they play in cancer The scientific community understands that each cancer starts from one single cell. In olden days it was only when a person could see or feel a lump, a doctor could diagnose it as a cancerous growth. But today this is not the case cancer can be detected at a very early stage and treated. If we have to differentiate between the normal cells and cancer cells, it can be noted that the cancer cell seems to have lost a number of vital control systems. Here comes the concept of genes which is the most important ingredient in the cell responsible for multiplication. The genes are codes that instruct the cell how to make many different proteins. One gene 'codes' for one protein. In a...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Physicians Ethics and Lethal Injection

...Physicians' Ethics and Lethal Injection The concept of participating in lethal injections consciously and directly conflicts with what might be called the "traditional" view of the physician's role. The traditional view, as articulated, for example, by the House of Delegates of the American Medical Association in 1973 declared: "The intentional termination of the life of one human being by lethal injection killing-is contrary to that for which the medical profession stands and is contrary to the policy of the American Medical Association" (Ramsey 1999, p. 121). "The California Medical Association, the American Medical Association (AMA), and the American Society of Anesthesiologists...
11 Pages(2750 words)Research Paper

DNA Mutations

...Mutation is the process that involves the change or damage of a DNA to extend so as to alter the genetic setup of that gene (Blamire ,2000). The relationship between genes and DNA are best understood by mutation studies. The effects of large deletions and arrangement in a segment of DNA may result in the loss or gain of a gene or so a function. Resultantly the mRNA transcribed from that particular changed or damaged gene will carry an entirely different genetic message (Blamire ,2000). The polypeptide created as a result of the translation of the changed mRNA will carry a different sequence of amino acids. The function of the protein made by this polypeptide will be changed or lost as well (Blamire...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin Mutations

...Unit Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin Mutations The of the Journal is: “Factor V Leiden and prothrombinG20210A mutations, but not methylenetetra hydrofolate reductases C677T, are associated with recurrent miscarriages”. It is written by Foka.J, Karas.G, Kotsis.A, Saravelos.H, Karavida.A , and Zournatzi.V. F, and published by Oxford publishers, volume 15. The overall evaluation of this journal is to investigate the relationship between factor V Leiden, recurrent miscarriages, c677T methylenetetrahydrofolate, and prothrombin G20210A. In this case study, the prevalence of factor V Leiden, C677T and G20210A methylenetetrahydrofolate are assessed. Mutations are determined in a consecutive...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Lethal Injection by Vilhelm Sjostrom

...Lethal Injection by Vilhelm Sjostrom The painting under scrutiny is from the website It is called “Lethal Injection” composed by Vilhelm Sjostrom. All paintings on the website are owned by Jani Leinonen. The picture depicts Scooby-Doo tied up to a bed and an IVR set up on him. He looks happy as ever and is sticking out his tongue like he does in all animated cartoons. Jani Leinonen is known for being a patriot and his movement against McDonald is well-known news. He openly infringes copyrights and is known to have made it to the jail a couple of times for it. A Masters in Fine Arts, he edits existing images the way he likes. Cartoon images have a general appeal to the public and...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Lethal v. Non lethal weapons

...Lethal v. Non Lethal Weapons Lethal v. Non Lethal Weapons Even at a glimpse of the term “weapon” written on a piece of paper, one can easily tremor because of the growing deadly conditions around the globe. The entire world is on fire because of natural and manmade hazards and weapons are one such human feature which have become both a necessity for security reasons as well as a danger for the community at large because they are now in possession of various groups of radicals. However non-lethal weapons have emerged to enhance the humanitarian perspective, the critics still argue that in the post-Cold War era, weapons have not only failed to strengthen a...
20 Pages(5000 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Recessive Lethal Mutations for FREE!

Contact Us