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Development and Diversification of Living Organisms - Assignment Example

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The paper “Development and Diversification of Living Organisms” looks at the development and diversification, which are dependent on the environmental factors that contribute to the reproduction and growth of species. These include natural selection mechanisms…
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Development and Diversification of Living Organisms
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Download file to see previous pages The complete set of genes within a living organism’s cell is called genotype. On the other hand, the complete set of physical characteristics that make up the structure of an organism is called phenotype. The limitations of these factors will inhibit the reproduction process, which of course results differ from one species to another because of the differences in characteristics that are inherited and environmental influences. This variation is also the result of a process called mutation, which is caused by radiation, viruses, and errors during DNA replication. Genes that arise by mutation and found at the same place on a chromosome is known as an allele. Thus, it can be said that evolution is the result of two opposing forces.
According to Hardy-Weinberg’s Theory, the genotype and allele frequencies of a population will often remain in equilibrium, unless disturbing influences, such as mutation, is present. The equilibrium state is only possible when the genotype and allele frequencies do not change. This happens when a population has a large size, which prevents the occurrence of genetic drift, bottlenecks and founder effects. The equilibrium state also occurs when there is no mutation, as explained earlier and that random mating takes place, which is explained below.
However, this is hardly the case. In other words, if the equilibrium state is violated by factors such as those mentioned above, then evolution will take place. The genotype and allele frequencies are influenced by environmental and cultural events. A given genotype frequency can occur with random mating in a single generation as this causes the evolution of a given species, which in turn produces a new equilibrium within that one generation. For instance, continuous random mating of a black-haired population will result in homozygotes. Such violations include inbreeding, assortative mating, and small population size. On the other hand, a change in allele frequency can occur when selection, mutation, and migration happen. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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