StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Discuss the main types of end point used in toxicity testing in cellular system ,indicating how they can be incorporated into ti - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Non-animal Methods for Toxicity Testing Toxicity screening for the myriad of compounds developed and released annually to the public has come a long way since the concept has been developed. For a much longer time animal models were mostly used in these screenings due to their short lifespans and quicker response to the toxic substances, which are easier to observe in comparison with human subjects (Sass, 2000)…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER94.7% of users find it useful
Discuss the main types of end point used in toxicity testing in cellular system ,indicating how they can be incorporated into ti
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Discuss the main types of end point used in toxicity testing in cellular system ,indicating how they can be incorporated into ti"

Non-animal Methods for Toxi Testing Toxi screening for the myriad of compounds developed and released annually to the public has come a longway since the concept has been developed. For a much longer time animal models were mostly used in these screenings due to their short lifespans and quicker response to the toxic substances, which are easier to observe in comparison with human subjects (Sass, 2000). However, in recent years there has been a considerable increase in pressure of developing toxicity tests that bear greater semblance to human cellular systems due to rising issues in using animals such as the humane treatment of animals, the costs for maintaining and breeding the test animals, related problems such as incompatibility with human cellular systems (i.e. inbreeding of animals, gender/species differences, in turn causing differences in pharmacologic or toxin mode of actions), unrealistic dosages of toxins, small test populations, inefficiencies in obtaining sound results and the lack of other human factors such as diseases in the test subjects (Knight, 2008, p.214). The combination of inefficiencies and expenses that occur as the result of the need to comply with toxicity tests cause the release of chemicals that had little to no proper toxicity tests, and can be potentially lethal to users (Rotroff, et al., 2010). As a result, other non-animal solutions were developed, which use mostly cells and cultures in vitro, and in turn can expect faster results that better resemble human cellular processes (Andersen and Krewski, 2009). Despite these outlooks, other setbacks in the use of alternative methods of toxicity testing can still occur such as optimisation and standardisation of methods, validation of the results, and the relative expenses of performing only small to medium loads in assays especially with regards to automated processes such as sampling and readings (Wetmore, et al. 2012). Still, the use of cell lines in cell-based toxicity screening assays seem promising through the use of in vitro tests with increased loads in assay while using viable cells such as primary cells, immortalised cell lines, human cells and stem cell-derived systems, and these can improve both outcome paces and predictive value of the tests in relation to human cell system toxicity (Basketter, et al., 2012; Riss and Moravec, 2004). A point to consider when opting for cell-based toxicity assays is the expected endpoints of the tests, which are dependent on the objectives of the test, whether these tests are cost-effective, if the tests can provide high throughput results, the degree of uniformity needed in the cell assays, and reliability or reproducibility of the results (Judson, et al., 2013).For example, there are some assays which use viable cell counts to determine toxicity of chemicals, such as the use of basal cell culture for in vitro cytotoxicity tests. These tests determine cytotoxicity in chemicals without any information yet, and as such can be used to rank them in terms of potential toxicity based on observed cell deaths (Ekwall, et al., 1990). Because these tests mostly rely on cell counts and finding out the viability of the cells, results can be gathered in shorter time in comparison with other kinds of tests. In addition, the results can be predicted based on the known chemical structures of the chemical, and thus it can also be used as a confirmatory test. However because there has been much greater emphasis on biochemical pathways of toxic chemicals, establishing the lowest amount that could possibly cause cellular events and how these chemicals affect reproductive and developmental processes, the use of cytotoxicity has been determined to be insufficient in establishing chemical dosage rates(Basketter, et al., 2012, p.18). Another example of an in vitro assay that relies on primary cell lines, using neurotoxicity as an endpoint is the development of central nervous system (CNS) tissues using proliferation assays to observe cellular interactions and how neurotoxicity occurs (van Liet, 2010, p. 20). While there were developments and ease in observing how metals and pesticides can affect neurodevelopment and chemical signalling among cells within a CNS system, using this assay itself has proven to be rather tedious due to the complexities in culturing CNS tissues, uniformity of cellular responses and the need for additional tests to find out whether or not aggregated cultures can provide similar results to monolayer cells (Basketter, et al., 2012). These issues can affect the outcome of toxicity assays using CNS cells, and unless standardisation of methods can be done this kind of assay may not be as cost-effective among other toxicity assays. Lastly, in vitro metabolic assays such as hepatocellular metabolism with organ toxicity as endpoint are used, using factors such as liver blood flow, association and dissociation rates of chemicals to plasma proteins, kinetics of hepatocellular uptake and metabolism of the chemical in question. These must first be identified before proceeding to toxicity tests in order to take into account in vivo absorption rates of the chemical along with other factors that can affect dosage response such as the composition of the culture media and how the chemical binds to surfaces, thereby increasing the efficiency of the test (Basketter, et al., 2012, p. 216). However because liver cells produce relatively similar results in toxicity tests and in turn allows predictability of metabolism and pharmacokinetic mechanisms, hepatocellular metabolism assays are considered to be cost-efficient and are thus good endpoints for assessing chemical toxicity. The use of in vitro methods in using cell-based toxicity assays seem promising due to faster results compared with using animal in vivo cells, and in turn the results of such tests have greater semblance to how these potential toxic substances can affect the human body. But in order to increase cost-effectiveness of these in vitro tests considerations such as test objectives, endpoints used, standardisation of methods and validation procedures must be taken into account in order to perform tests suitable to needs. This is because cell lines, especially undifferentiated cells may have variability in terms of proliferation and growth even without the addition of the chemicals, and without such prior knowledge false-negatives or false-positives can arise, leading to inaccuracies with the labelling of the chemicals. Despite these issues, the use of such methods can remove issues from the use of animal models such as incompatibility with human cellular systems, inhumane treatment of test animals, costs in breeding and maintenance, lack of additional disease factors, size of test populations, etc., which contribute to lesser toxicity assays of chemicals and in turn increases the number of potentially lethal products in the market. Because of the health impact of the lack of proper toxicity measurements for the growing number of synthesised compounds annually, there has been an increase in the lobbying and pressuring in the usage of human cell lines in toxicity assays, which entails agencies to work together in improving previous methods of determining chemical toxicity. Bibliography Andersen, M. E., and Krewski, D. 2009. Toxicity testing in the 21st century: bringing the vision to life. Toxicological Sciences, 107(2), pp. 324-330. Basketter, D. A., Clewell, H., Kimber, I., Rossi, A., Blaauboer, B., Burrier, R., ... and Hartung, T. 2012. t (4) Report A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing. ALTEX, 29(1), pp.3-91. Ekwall, B., Silano, V., Paganuzzi-Stammati, A. and Zucco, F. 1990. Toxicity tests with mammalian cell cultures. In: Bourdeau P, Somers E, Richardson GM and Hickman JR, eds. Short-term toxicity tests for non-genotoxic effects. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 75-97. Judson, R., Kavlock, R., Martin, M., Reif, D., Houck, K., Knudsen, T., ... and Dix, D. 2013. Perspectives on validation of high-throughput assays supporting 21st century toxicity testing. ALTEX, 30(1), pp. 51-66. Knight, A. 2008. Non-animal methodologies within biomedical research and toxicity testing. ALTEX, 25(3), pp. 213-231. Riss, T. L., and Moravec, R. A. 2004. Use of multiple assay endpoints to investigate the effects of incubation time, dose of toxin, and plating density in cell-based cytotoxicity assays. Assay and Drug Development Technologies, 2(1), pp. 51-62. Rotroff, D. M., Wetmore, B. A., Dix, D. J., Ferguson, S. S., Clewell, H. J., Houck, K. A., ... and Thomas, R. S. 2010. Incorporating human dosimetry and exposure into high-throughput in vitro toxicity screening. Toxicological Sciences, 117(2), pp. 348-358. Sass, N. 2000. Humane endpoints and acute toxicity screening. ILAR Journals, 41(2), pp. 114-123. van Liet, E. 2010. Current standing and future prospects for the technologies proposed to transform toxicity testing in the 21st century. ALTEX, 28(1), pp.17-35. Wetmore, B. A., Wambaugh, J. F., Ferguson, S. S., Sochaski, M. A., Rotroff, D. M., Freeman, K., ... and Thomas, R. S. 2012. Integration of dosimetry, exposure, and high-throughput screening data in chemical toxicity assessment. Toxicological Sciences, 125(1), pp. 157-174. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Discuss the main types of end point used in toxicity testing in Essay”, n.d.)
Discuss the main types of end point used in toxicity testing in Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1494966-discuss-the-main-types-of-end-point-used-in
(Discuss the Main Types of End Point Used in Toxicity Testing in Essay)
Discuss the Main Types of End Point Used in Toxicity Testing in Essay. https://studentshare.org/biology/1494966-discuss-the-main-types-of-end-point-used-in.
“Discuss the Main Types of End Point Used in Toxicity Testing in Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1494966-discuss-the-main-types-of-end-point-used-in.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Discuss the main types of end point used in toxicity testing in cellular system ,indicating how they can be incorporated into ti

Toxicity from Heavy Metals

...the capacity to directly affect behaviour, by producing the impairment of mental and neurological function, influencing neurotransmitter production and utilisation, and changing a number of metabolic processes (Farr, 2009). Some of the systems that can be impaired are the circulatory and cardiovascular systems; detoxification pathways, such as the colon, liver, kidney and skin; endocrine system; energy production pathways; and the enzymatic, gastrointestinal, immune, nervous, reproductive and urinary systems (Farr, 2009). The health of an individual can be seriously damaged, upon inhaling heavy metal particles, even if these are present...
20 Pages(5000 words)Dissertation

Toxicity testing

...preventive exercises programs for the public and reducing the allowable amount of chemicals and materials like asbestos in buildings. However the effectiveness of these programs cannot be tested and thus a risk of outbreak of diseases and infections still exist. Moreover the use of harmful chemicals, like asbestos and VOCs in the construction of buildings should be banned and environment friendly and hygienic materials and compounds should be developed to replace them (Dwyer, Doane & Hinman, 1997). References Dwyer, J., Doane, T., & Hinman, M. (1997). Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: modeling and risk assessment (Vol. 6). ASTM International. Greenberg, M. (2003). Occupational, Industrial,...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

IT - System Testing

...of these operations is to reveal defects that relates to hardware or software interactions when hardware exchanges and reconfigurations occur. The consequences of these actions are observed to determine whether the system can recover gracefully in case of a malfunction (Burnstein, 2003). 5. Security Testing Security testing evaluates system characteristics that relates to the availability, integrity and confidentiality of system data and services (Burnstein, 2003). Many developers face the problem of ensuring that the system is safe and secure and this is especially true because of the proliferation of commercial...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Extended Definition: System Testing

...cartridge and the ball point. When the units are ready, they are brought together assembled and integrated. After the complete pen is integrated, the whole pen is tested. The testing is by writing on different surfaces to note the performance, subjecting the pen to different environmental conditions to find out its resistance and may more other tests. All this processes are termed as system testing. This clearly indicates how the process of system testing is carried out. System testing is not the process of manufacturing the...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

List the author's main point

...to business and economics as supported by the quote “How can one remove the claim of virtue from the behavior that is most habitual to people?” “The artful use of violence is obviously something that we admire in those sectors of the culture that we most associate with success” (838). The author states that our virtue is manifested ethically through the use of positive violence. The use of the expression “we can move mountains” (839) clearly supports this statement of pride. By presenting itself as a type of wisdom, sustainability acts as a mediator between our damaging values and truthfulness to democracy. This is...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Investigation of Different types of Nanomaterials used in Cancer therapy

...of various types of cancer. Nanoparticles Various nanoparticles like polyglycolic acid, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polylactic acid are being utilized for the purpose of attaining nanocarriers. Many other non biodegradable particles such as gold nanoparticles are useful in the formation of major area of the nanomaterials research for drug delivery and surface modifications. Polymeric nanoparticles The environmental nanoparticles are the most appropriate ones for the use of biomedical applications keeping in mind the point that drugs can also be attached with covalent interactions to a polymeric matrix. The concept of multifunctional nanocarriers is...
11 Pages(2750 words)Research Paper

Point of Sale System

...Running head: trends in The Use of Point of Sale System in the US and Other Parts of The World. Point of Sale System. College Subject Date With the ever growing phenomenon of globalization as well as advancement in technology the modern world requires a more convenient payment system that can be used anywhere in the world without having to travel around with cash. As such plastic money has become very popular as one just needs to travel with their cash loaded card. The use of plastic money and point of sale systems has tremendously...
1 Pages(250 words)Research Paper

Three main types of prevention

...As the saying goes, “prevention is better than cure.” Indeed, there will always be need for treatment for substance abuse disorders but prevention can effectively help avoid this problem from recurring. According to National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA, ND), there are mainly three types of prevention of alcohol abuse known as primary, secondary and tertiary. The first type of prevention is primary prevention and it involves promotion of health and elimination of alcohol of alcohol abuse among all age groups. The main benefit of this type of prevention is that it seeks to eliminate the problem before it exists. If carefully...
1 Pages(250 words)Coursework

How a Cellular Phone System Works

...How a cellular phone system works Introduction Cellular phones are a marvel of modern technology. Millions of cellular phone users in developed countries can make calls across thousands of miles. They are a significant part of the contemporary lifestyle. However, not all users of cellular phones understand how they work. A cellular phone system operates under a combination of device security and refined radio technology (Wisniewski, 14). Discussion 1. Radio technology Cellular phones operate through a large interconnected network, which...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Point of Care Testing Clinical Issues

...Point of Care Testing Clinical Issues Introduction The medical fraternity has to deal with a lot of clinical problems. The problems range from increased prevalence of certain diseases to the general challenges that are evident in the course of medical practice. The critical steps of Evidence-Based Practice are meant to counter such problems by giving nurses a platform from which they can diagnose and implement solutions for the prevalent problems after careful deliberation and analysis. Problem Identification and its Relevance in the Current Healthcare Environment This impending problem is identified with regard to the situation in the U.S. Obesity has been a menace in the country for a...
5 Pages(1250 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Discuss the main types of end point used in toxicity testing in cellular system ,indicating how they can be incorporated into ti for FREE!

Contact Us