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ATP biochemistry in the CNS - Essay Example

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ATP Name Module Institution Abstract In this paper we shall mainly focus on Adenosine Tri Phosphate, ATP. Other than the synthesis and storage at the presynaptic terminal, release and breakdown of Adenosine Tri Phosphate, its role as a neurotransmitter in the CNS shall be looked upon…
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ATP biochemistry in the CNS
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Download file to see previous pages It can be said to be a high energy molecule which is responsible for the storage of the energy required to carry out daily activities. Hence all the physiological mechanism in our body acquire energy for operation directly from Adenosine triphosphate. Cells maintain a supply of Adenosine phosphate through the oxidisation of food, as this releases energy. A remarkable ability of Adenosine triphosphate is that it may be involved in many reactions simultaneously, extracting and releasing energy at the same time. Adenosine Tri Phosphate in order to send messages and control chemical reaction is used as an on-off switch (Guyton& Hall 2000). . Adenosine Tri phosphate induces the purinergic receptors in the brain (Matsuoka & Ohkubo, 2004). It may stimulate them directly or as a co-transmitter. This action is carried about via the P2 purinergic receptors. Adenosine Triphosphate is composed of an adenosine molecule attached to 3 phosphate groups. Adenosine itself is a purine nucleoside and has a role in not only various biochemical processes in the body but also serves as an inhibitory neurotransmitter (Fredholm, Chen, Masino & Vaugeois, 2005). The formation of Adenosine triphosphate requires the addition of 3 phosphate groups to the Adenosine backbone. Adenosine is first converted into Adenosine monophosphate, then to Adenosine di phosphate and finally to Adenosine Triphosphate. ...
Adenosine Tri phosphate is vital for all living cells, processes within the cell cannot use the energy stored in the bonds of a glucose molecule, and they have to rely on Adenosine triphosphate. Thus it is present in all living cells, and is particularly highly concentrated in the presynaptic terminals. This is because presynaptic terminals require a lot of energy for the maintenance of the resting membrane potential and the release of neurotransmitters (Burnstock 2013). Along with this, it is also the neurotransmitter in multiple areas of the brain. The neurotransmitter action is believed to be mediated by Adenosine Tri Phosphate as well as adenosine. And attempts to differentiate between the role of Adenosine Tri Phosphate and adenosine on post-synaptic terminals has been futile so far. Although their mechanism of action is different, they seem to have similar role in the postsynaptic cell. Adenosine Tri Phosphate acts via the P2X and P2Y receptors on the postsynaptic cell, and uses Ca++ as the second messenger. Meanwhile this Adenosine Tri Phosphate is also gradually broken down by hydrolysis to Adenosine Monophosphate and then to Adenosine by enzymes present on the surface of the plasma membrane (Dasgupta, Ferre?, Kull, Hedlund, Finnman, Ahlberg, Arenas, Fredholm, & Fuxe 1996). Ecto-alkaline phosphatase is thought to be the major enzyme in the formation of adenosine in the synaptic cleft. Adenosine then activates the A1 and A2 receptors and further augments the role of Adenosine Tri Phosphate. A1 and A2 receptors use cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate as the second messenger inside the cells and their activation leads to an increase in ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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