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The dietary requirements necessary to maintain a healthy - Essay Example

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This paper tells about proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals and vitamins and explains how they are important for the body. For example, proteins are referred to as the building blocks of the body because they are used in repair and maintenance of the body. …
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The dietary requirements necessary to maintain a healthy
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Download file to see previous pages Digestion breaks down proteins into amino acids. Amino acids are of three categories – essential, nonessential and conditional amino acids. Essential amino acids are nine – “Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lycine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan and Valine” – and can only be obtained from food intake. Nonessential amino acids are four – “Alanine, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid and Glutamic Acid” – and are made by the body by breaking down essential amino acids. Conditional amino acids are eight in number – “Arginine, Cysteine, Glutamine, Glycine, Ornithine, Proline, Serine and Tyrosine” – and are not viewed as essential. They are only needed in times of illness.
There are many sources of proteins: all types of meat, all types of beans, nuts and seeds, soy proteins products, dairy products and eggs. Intake of proteins should be regulated. This is because a high level of proteins may overwork the kidney. Meat and eggs intake should also be watched as these products contain high levels of cholesterol. Accumulation of cholesterol in the body is a risk factor for heart disease. In severe deficiency of proteins, Kwashiorkor is likely to develop. The recommended daily intake of proteins is “2 to 3 ounces of cooked lean meat, poultry, or fish; ½ cup of cooked dried beans; 1 egg, 2 tablespoons of peanut butter, or 1 ounce of cheese”.
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are very important as they provide the fuel to the body after being broken down to glucose which is oxidized to release energy. Carbohydrates are of two main types – complex and simple carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates include starch and dietary fiber. Complex carbohydrates must be broken down to glucose for the body to utilize. Starch is contained in foods such as breads, cereals and vegetables. Dietary fiber is of two categories: soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble dietary fibers include oatmeal, nuts and seeds among others while insoluble dietary fibers include brown rice, barley, fruits among others. Simple carbohydrates are those that naturally have sugars, for instance, fruits, milk products among others (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2012). Dietary fibers are recommended over refined meals. Removing the external cover of grains converts them into refined foods. The diagram below show the recommended amount of grams required daily (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2012). Nutrient (Units) Child 1-3 Female 4-8 Male 4-8 Female 9-13 Male 9-13 Female 14-18 Male 14-18 Female 19-30 Male 19-30 Female 31-50 Male 31-50 Female 51+ Male 51+ Total Fiber (grams) 14 17 20 22 25 25 31 28 34 25 31 22 28 Excessive intake of carbohydrates especially the simple carbohydrates are associated with obesity because excess glucose is stored. Deficiency in carbohydrates in the body forces the body to burn fats and proteins to use as a source of energy (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2012). This deficiency therefore leads to malnourished people. However, in severe cases of carbohydrate deficiency, marasmus is likely to develop. Marasmus develops when there is severe malnutrition. Lipids Lipids are needed in the body to transport the fat soluble vitamins, supply energy and provide fatty acids. Lipids exist in various forms; if a lipid is a liquid at room temperature then it is called oil, if it is solid at room temperature then it referred to as fat. Lipids are hydrolyzed to release glycerol, fatty acids, diglycerides and monoglycerides. Fatty acids are particularly important in the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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