We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Nobody downloaded yet

Antibodies - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Discovery and Development of 1,2-Propanediol (Propylene Glycol) Introduction Innumerable products of industrial microbiology have been developed and produced through various biotechnological approaches such as metabolic pathway engineering and metabolic control engineering of microorganisms…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Polish This Essay92.8% of users find it useful
Antibodies
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Antibodies"

Download file to see previous pages It is used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins and is used as solvent for surfactants, paints and cleaning agents1. It is also used as antifreeze for de-icing aircrafts at airports as it lowers the freezing point of water. Recent applications include use as a humectant and a preservative. It is used in cosmetics, pharmaceutical preparations and also in electronic cigars2. The structure of 1,2-Propanediol comprises of three carbons with a stereogenic center at the central carbon3. It exists in two racemic forms: S and R as shown in figure 1 below. Figure 1: Chemical structure (S and R form) of 1,2-propanediol 3 1,2-Propanediol as well as 1,3-Propanediol can be manufactured though bioengineered microorganisms. By turning on and off some genes, it is possible to make the microorganism overproduce a specific metabolic product. As shown in figure 2, the intermediate metabolism of Escherichia coli can be shifted to produce 1,2 and 1,3-propanediol using enzymes such as aldose reductase from rat lens, E. coli glycerol dehydrogenase and Klebsiella pneumoniae glycerol dehydrogenase and 1,3-propanedioloxidoreductase4. There are various biochemical pathways through which 1,2-propanediol can be produced. Figure 2: Metabolic pathway engineering of E. ...
It was shown that E. coli can grow on the L-fucose and L-rhamnose deoxy sugars as sole carbon and energy sources resulting in the production of propanediol. The first instance of metabolic engineering to produce 1,2-propanediol was when Altaras and Cameron metabolically bioengineered the 1,2-propanediol pathway in E. coli7. In 1999, they reported that E. coli that overexpressed methylglyoxal synthase gene produced 1,2-propanediol. Expression of methylglyoxal synthase or glycerol dehydrogenase led to anaerobic production of around 0.25 g of 1,2-propanediol per liter. The yield was found to be higher both the enzymes were coexpressed7. The development After their first report of the production of 1,2-propanediol from metabolically engineering E. coli, Altaras and Cameron again in 2000 published another report. This time they reported enhanced production of 1,2-propanediol8. They investigated three methods. First method involved the elimination of lactate byproduct. The second method involved the construction of a complete pathway from dihydroxyacetone phosphate – an intermediate of the glycolytic cycle. The third method involved bioprocessing improvements through fed-batch fermentation using the best bioengineered strains. They were able to successfully produced a final yield of 0.19 g of 1,2-propanediol per gram of consumed glucose. Many later studies have investigated the production of 1,2-propanediol by metabolically engineered bacteria. Berrios-Rivera, San and Bennett studied the effects of various cofactor manipulations on the production of 1,2-propanediol9. They used sugars that were similar to glucose and that can be fed into glycolysis for pyruvate production. The sugars used had different oxidation ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Antibodies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1471583-antibodies
(Antibodies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words)
https://studentshare.org/biology/1471583-antibodies.
“Antibodies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1471583-antibodies.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
DETECTION OF ANTIVIRAL ANTIBODIES IN SERUM USING AN ELISA TECHNIQUE
Antibodies are the fundamental reagents in ELISA. The determination of the presence or absence of the antibody concentration in the blood enables us to identify the disease and understand the level of the disease. Antibodies form a type of glycoproteins in the serum of the blood and they are called as immunoglobulins.
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
INFECTION & IMMUNITY PRACTICAL : DETECTION OF ANTIVIRAL ANTIBODIES IN SERUM USING AN ELISA TECHNIQUE
Innate immunity is the immunity that occurs right from birth. Acquired or adaptive immunity is the type which is obtained based on the induction with response to foreign substances (Edwards 1999). The foreign substance called the antigen enters into the living body and the body recognizes it and evokes an immune response.
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
What Is An Antibody Antibodies And The Immune System
What is an antibody? Human bodies as well as the body of other animals are constantly faced by the risk of infection from various disease agents. This being the case, there is a need to have a mechanism that deals with protecting the body against infections, and fighting against the infections in the event that the disease agents have succeeded in infecting the body.
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay
Bispecific Antibodies: production and use
Bispecific antibodies widen a potential utility of therapies based on antibodies through enabling engagement of two different targets simultaneously. However, production and design of bispecific antibodies have remained challenging.
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Review the general applications of monoclonal antibodies,emphasising their advantage and limitations with specific examples
Monoclonal antibodies are characterized by their monovalent affinity, because they are known to attach themselves to the particular epitome (Marvin and Zhu, 2005). They are also identified as monovalent, because they can be produced from any substance, and they will be able to attach themselves to the given substance.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Bispecific antibodies
With chemo and radiation there are a lot of side effects related to it along with no promising results as such in terms of treatment. Immunotherapy has been started for more than 20 years ago with modifications to it on daily basis. Initially it was started for hematological cancers and that showed very satisfactory results but then the hope raised that if this can work for killing cancer cells spread in the blood from a hematological cancer then it should also be able to take care of the metastatic disease gone into blood and to different distant areas through the blood from solid tumors as a primary source.
23 Pages(5750 words)Research Paper
Hybridoma technology
Their many identical daughter clones will secrete, over a long period of time, millions of identical copies of made-to-order "monoclonal" antibodies. About a hundred years ago, it was proposed by Paul Ehrlich that antibodies could be used as "magic bullets" to target and destroy human diseases.
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
How can the treatment of cancer with recombinant antibodies be improved
The manufacturing process of recombinant byproduct includes the genetic recombination between one segments of DNA to the original one by employing
20 Pages(5000 words)Essay
ANTIGENS, ANTIBODIES AND THE IMMUNE RESPONSE
These symptoms present as the symptoms of a disease which may have to be managed through antibiotics and other medications.
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay
Clinical immunology (ELISA TYPES)
This is a fast method since there are no secondary antibodies added. However, other signal amplifications can be missed and these are often obtained through using secondary antibodies. The
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Let us find you another Essay on topic Antibodies for FREE!
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us