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Molecular Mechanism of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli - Essay Example

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Molecular Mechanism of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli Name: Unit: Instructor: Date: Abstract Background: Resistance to antibiotics in E.coli and other bacteria is conferred to them by gene transfers and mutations. The main aims and outcomes of such are strains that are more virulent and tolerant to harsh conditions crated by antibiotic therapy…
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Molecular Mechanism of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli
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"Molecular Mechanism of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli"

Download file to see previous pages Conclusion: Sufficient research results have shown that the E.coli continues to cause infections such as UTIs, resisting the basic ciprofloxacin. These strains are referred to as extended spectrum beta-lactamase E.coli. There is therefore need to develop new antibiotics and explore new ways of tackling the bacteria. Introduction Escherichia coli, commonly referred to as E. coli, are amongst the few organisms that have steered the art of antibiotic resistance in bacteria to altogether new levers. The European E. coli outbreak of 2011 served as an eye opener on the magnitude of harm such a development can cause. On that regard, it is vital to understand the antibiotic resistance mechanism of E. coli, especially at the molecular level. This implies that the quantification of the mechanism upon which this eventuality is realized will have to drench deep into the responsible genetic sequences in the DNA of the bacterium. Fortunately, the genetic sequence of E. coli is already established and safely stored in accessible archives. This is irrespective of the plasticity experienced while sequencing the DNA of E. coli. The main methods by which resistance is observed to occur include: Prevention of entry into the cell, Synthesis of enzymes that lyse the antibiotics, rapid efflux from the cell, and modification of the active site. Evaluation The quantification of the mechanism behind the resistance calls for the isolation of E. coli strains that exhibit this form of resistance. Due to the wide range of antibiotics availed for the fight against the spread of the bacteria, it is vital to focus on strains that exhibit multiple resistances. This is also of merit in a rather different perception in that; it can facilitate the development of antibiotics that encompass solutions to different targets. This helps in the improvement of their therapeutic efficacy. On this regard, a central region of focus falls under the integrons (these are genetic elements able to target and rearrange ORFs embedded in gene cassette units and change them to functional genes by ensuring their proper expression). This is with regards to their heightened presence in organisms exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistances. They were originally associated with gram negative bacteria. Progressively the analysis of strategic loci may be of great essence in the quantification of the avenues followed towards the establishment of a resistance in E. coli. Such a locus is the mar locus (Michael, 2007). On reference is that rapid mutations experienced in the mentioned locus; that eventuate into alteration of the coding sequence, hence aberration of the protein sequence produced. Apparently, the development of resistance towards a given antibiotic is based on two broad mechanisms. They include the development of mutated genetic sequence at the DNA level and the horizontal line gene transfer (also termed lateral gene transfer). This simply refers to the accumulation of various mutations via a systematic process; where the central microbe, in this case E. coli, accumulates the necessary mutation via prokaryotic DNA absorption mechanisms. This includes mechanisms such as transduction, transformation, gene transfer agents (found in alphaproteobacteria), or conjugation. The resistance sequences are conveyed along the various tandem sequences, such as transposons, integrons or plasmids (D’ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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