Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease that is characterized by reduced bone mass and loss of the bone tissue leading to fragility, brittleness, and frequent fracture of the bones. This condition increases the risk of bone fractures especially in regions of the body such as spine, wrist, as well as the hip…
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Osteoporosis is a major concern in US where over 10 million people suffer of this disease while another 18 million are at a risk of developing Osteoporosis. Most of those diagnosed and at risk of Osteoporosis are women especially those past the menopause stage. Moreover, research shows that people from certain ethnic background such as Asian and whites are at greater risk of getting Osteoporosis. This paper focuses on the causes pathophysiology, clinical features, para clinic finding, Treatment, and Prognosis of osteoporosis. Causes or Etiology The major cause of osteoporosis is imbalance between the bone formation and bone resorption processes. This occurs if the body fails to develop adequate new bones or if too much of the formed boned becomes reabsorbed. For adequate formation of the bones, sufficient amounts of calcium and phosphorous must be taken. Actually, the body reabsorbs some of the calcium from the bones, which is used for other body processes such as invigorating function of organs such as brain heart, and other organs (Lane S3-S5). Therefore lack of enough calcium in the diet result in insufficient bone and bone tissue production. Moreover, the bones produced are weaker, fragile, and brittle and break easily. The inadequate calcium absorption is also attributed to shortage of hormones such as estrogen in women and androgen in men. After menopause, estrogen levels reduce and risk of osteoporosis increase. Other cause of osteoporosis include inadequate intake of calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorous. Moreover, age related body changes, lack of weight-bearing exercises, and overuse of corticosteroids, disuse of muscles, genetic disorders, and problem associated with the thyroid gland increase chances of osteoporosis. Other known cause of osteoporosis include use of some medication that may cause rapid bone resorption or prevent calcium reabsorption (Lane S6-S9; Atik, Uslu and Eksioglu 25-27). Pathophysiology Pathophysiology of osteoporosis entails intrinsic bone fragility and frequent injuries. Injuries result from minor to major falls, falling to the side, poor postural reflexes and reduce soft tissues that are required for bone padding. Bone fragility is attributable to composite geometry, reduction in bone mass density, and change in quality of bone content, reduced collagen cross-links, and severed microarchitecture connections (Bartl and Frisch 144-149). Clinical Features In the initial stages, Osteoporosis may exhibit no symptoms. However, it later causes dull pain in the bones and other body parts, especially along the muscles. Other common symptoms include pain in the lower back as well as pain on the neck. As the disease progresses, the casualty may experience sharp and sudden pains especially when doing activities that strain bones and muscles. Other symptoms include one and muscle tenderness. Moreover, persons with osteoporosis easily get fractures on the neck, wrist, hip, and other bones even from minor falls. Spinal compression occurs easily resulting in dowager’s hump (Atik, Uslu and Eksioglu 25-27; Bartl and Frisch 153-158). Para Clinic Finding Some of the test and exams for osteoporosis include bone mineral density testing which is often done with DEXA scan used to diagnose bine loss, predict risk of bone fractures, and determine the effectiveness of osteoporosis medication. A spine or hip x-ray is used to detect fractures
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According to Sirduso and MacRae (2005: 4), “the term aging refers to a process or group of processes occurring in living organisms that with the passage of time lead to a loss of adaptability, functional impairment, and eventual death” . The effects of aging on the human body can create a great number of consequences for the individual who experiences the changes and deteriorations of their body.
Experts have specified that number of older people suffering from osteoporosis will continue to increase with increment in world population. Eighty percent of abovementioned sufferers are women, and particularly women older than fifty years of age. Besides different risk factors, ethnicity plays a significant role in the development of osteoporosis.
These deformations greatly reduce surface area for gaseous exchange (Green 2007). The chest expands to compensate because of reduced ventilation, the capacity to give out carbon dioxide in damaged.
Hyperventilation cannot compensate for this and hence vasoconstriction ensues leading to hypertension.
What is Osteoporosis?
The most common fracture to the neck of the femur is classified into three main groups:
Subcapital fracture, which occurs across the neck of the femur immediately the head;
Transcervical fracture, also occurs across the neck but halfway down the neck, like the subcapital fracture if this fracture is displaced, the head of femur will loose blood supply consequential to degeneration.
Under normal conditions, the bone is comprised of protein collagen and calcium ("MedicineNet"). For a healthy adult, bone is continually absorbed by and rebuilt into the body. Bones become larger and heavier as new bone tissue is added faster that existing bone is absorbed.
It affects skeletal structure of the body making it weak and fragile. Generally, an osteoporosis patient is above 50 years of age. The number of women getting affected by this disease is more than men. The bones remain strong till the age of 20 however as the age of a person increases the risk of osteoporosis also increases.
tomer’s attention to the specific element calcium, vitamin D and the drug, biphosphonate, popularly known to be prescribed to osteoporosis patients. Nowadays, osteoporosis is one of the common problems not only of women but men as well so the drug is potentially important in
y customers who aim to purchase drugs for osteoporosis, the value is the relief, the cure, the improved health condition that is to be received upon use of the product. Customers would buy the product if and when they have perceived (for first timers) and proven (for repeat
Osteoporosis is a disease of the bones. It refers to a condition that weakens the bones and makes them more vulnerable to fracture, which in turn cause severe pain and may also lead to disability. Many people around the world are at risk of Osteoporosis because of their low bone mass. Loss of bone mass is a silent disease.
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