Human Immunodeficiency Virus Date Introduction Human Immunodeficiency Virus is simply known as HIV. This virus is responsible for Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome, also referred to as AIDs. HIV retrovirus works by infecting the immune system cells…
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HIV has not had a cure yet. However, antiretroviral drugs are use to slow down the immune system cells’ destruction. The discussion in this paper focuses on HIV phylogenetic classification and morphology, transmission and replication in the host, virulence and pathogeniciy factors, treatment, epidemiology and public control methods. Phylogenetic classification and morphology According to Fauci and Lane (n.d), HIV virion has a structure that is icosahedra. This virion contains external spikes. The spikes form from two main protein envelopes namely external gp120 and the transmembrane gp 41. On the surface of the infected cell, the viron buds form. These buds comprises of numerous host proteins. The main host proteins are Major Histocompartibility complex (MHC) class I and II antigens, which are incorporate into the host’s lipid bilayer. The strains classified as HIV-1 fall into three distinct groups. These categories are M or Major, Outlier or O and N or New or non M/non O. Group M nearly responsible for global pandemic. Group M forms properly defined clusters on phylogenetic trees. M group subtypes are labeled A-D, F-H, J-K. Other relevant clusters are circulating recombinant forms or CRFs. These recombination events form because of divergent HIV strains within host individuals. Transmission and replication For all persons infected with HIV, there is a variable degree of viruses in genital secretions and blood. This is the case regardless of whether or not the patient has visible symptoms. The transmission of HIV virus occurs when infected blood or secretions are exposed to tissues of the eye, vigina, anal area, and mouth, broken skin such as cuts or needle punctures. The most common transmission modes are sexual contact, needles sharing and infected mothers to newborns during labor pregnancy or breastfeeding. HIV is an RNA virus. The main process associated with HIV RNA is reverse transcription of genomic RNA to DNA. This process is facilitated by enzyme reverse transcriptase. Replication cycle starts when gp 120 protein binds with high affinity. Once gp120 binds to CD4, it undergoes a conformational change that facilitates binding to one of the co-receptor groups. After the envelope, protein binds to CD4 molecule fusion occurs with the host cell membrane through the exposed gp41 molecule. The virus then penetrates plasma membrane of target cell then coiling upon to combine both the virion and immune system cells (Lama and Planelles, 2007). Virulence and pathogenicity factors HIV buds through the cell membrane. The virus is characterized by a capacity to cause disease. One attribute of HIV is replication and transmission, toxic, adherence and attachment and aggressiveness. For the virus, attachment to host immune system cell membrane is essential for virulence. This provides the opportunity to combine with the cells and cause reduction in protecting the body from diseases. In order to persist in the host, HIV virus has to replicate making it contagious. As a result, the virus is infectious. In order to survive, it has to remain aggressive. Aggressiveness comes with the ability to invade, multiply and survive in the tissues of the host. This makes HIV resistance to host defense mechanism. This virus also has high toxicity, which makes it possible to invade as many cells as possible. As a result, host immune
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Unlike the myths around, they are diseases that can infect anyone in spite of his or her race, gender, or age. Based on the period of discovery the diseases could be traced back in Africa from where it is believed to have developed and spread. They destroy the human immune system, specifically the CD4 bearing cells (CD4+ T cells and Macrophages).
They are characterized by a combination of good and bad ideas, which makes them subjects of scrutiny. The origin of HIV has puzzled many scientists since the disease first came into public’s awareness in the early 1980s. For over two decades, it has been a subject of debate, and the cause of many arguments.
HIV is a pandemic disease that has its implications on all aspects of life and affects every strata of the society. It affects all age groups and children develop the infection mainly through transmission from the infected mother during pregnancy, delivery or breast feeding.
The issue which is linked to the disease is one which continues to be defined by the global issue as well as the needs which are a part of each community. Each of the programs which have been developed is specific to the need to assist in stopping the disease while helping those who are suffering from HIV or AIDS.
Tempering with the naturally born baby in its original state can also be one of the aspects of the ethical constraint felt in this regard.
The potential scientific benefits that can come forth from it include the research expansion, enabling to
It has now been believed that HIV originated from monkeys because the simian immunodeficiency virus resembles the two types of HIV. That is HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-2 resembles the virus in white monkeys from western
The author states that the Human Immuno Deficiency virus can remain in dead body for years without showing any symptoms of being visible. The last of stage of disease to be infected is AIDS as it requires almost 10 years span of time to get infected and finally reaching the development of the AIDS disease.
There is an exception to the ethical and legal obligation to confidentiality of HIV-related information. Doctors in the US are required to report AIDS and HIV infections to health authorities considering the benefits of this outweigh
According to study, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is currently the leading cause of deaths in female inmates. In most cases, female inmates are poor with little or no education background and are members of ethnic minorities. These categories of women are aged between 25 to 34 years and are unmarried.
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
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