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The HIV virus damages the immune system by damaging CD4+ lymphocytes and marring cell-mediated immunity, which impedes the body’s ability to combat infections thereby rendering the body susceptible to diseases (McCutchan, 2013). As a result, when other viruses, bacteria or pathogens gain access to the body, they fail to get resistance from the host body immune system hence cause disease. Thereafter, a person with the HIV virus in his or her body is said to have AIDS when the immune system gets compromised. AIDS is a multiplex of signs and illnesses brought about by the effects of HIV on the immune system. From the name, an individual must come into contact with the virus to have an infection.
HIV virus thrives in biological fluids such as human blood, semen, and vaginal secretions. Breast milk also contains the virus. Other body fluids such as amniotic fluid surrounding a fetus as well fluids surrounding organs such as the brain or the spinal cord also contain the HIV virus.
HIV virus exits the host through various portals such as the mucus membranes, open wounds, bloodstream, and genital tract. The breasts also serve as a portal of exit for infected mothers who breastfeed their infants.
HIV virus moves from the reservoir to a new host through participating in unprotected oral, vaginal or anal sexual intercourse with an infected person. According to the World Health Organization, HIV/AIDS spreads mainly through sexual contact thereby making it classified as a sexually transmitted infection (2015). Sharing needles with a person who is infected with HIV also leads to transmission of the virus. Consequently, the abuse of injectable drugs such as heroine is associated with high rates of HIV transmission. Expectant mothers infected with the HIV virus can also transmit it to their babies in the course of the gestation period, during childbirth or while breastfeeding. However, recent advancements in the prevention of mother to child
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The name for this disease has been derived from the Latin name of sausage. The name botulism was first devised by a German physician named Muller in 1870 (MedicineNet 1). In 1895, clostridium botulinum bacteria were isolated for the first time. In 1944, Dr.
While AIDS is only the trigger, its sequels - diarrhea, tuberculosis, and systemic fungal infections are the bullets that actually kill. These sequels need special attention as all three in their non-AIDS context are of a socio cultural nature: tuberculosis is a socio-economic disease caused by malnutrition and diarrhea and systemic fungal infections are caused by poor hygiene and contaminated water.
Prison guards in particular have certain guidelines that they follow in order to protect their own health effectively but they must also try and stabilize the health of inmates in the prison as well. Therefore the literature explicitly discusses the legal berth of the new protocols that have been established and the role of health care providers inside the prison environment.
Hepatitis A, otherwise known as infectious hepatitis, is caused by a filterable toxin and virus which is attracted and usually attacks the liver cells causing the liver cells and then the bile ducts to inflame (Poindexter, p.
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The author states that a person can contact Ebola through physical contact with a sick person. Scientists and doctors have tried so much to come up with various preventive measures for this particular disease, though they come across many challenges. This is because it is not known clearly where the animals that originally caused Ebola are situated.
This virus drastically reduces the natural immunity of the body and makes the patient susceptible to numerous infections.
One of the major reasons in me choosing this disease is the manner in which it spreads. Unfortunately, its spread is very directly linked
Moreover, it is significant to understand that TB is transmitted through air from people who are infected to others who are not. Besides, “Mycobacterium tuberculosis” bacteria are disseminated into the air by
This is known to modern mathematics as ‘SIR’ model.
Some individuals are considered to be susceptible. Although they don’t have the disease, there is still chance that they might get infected, for example, if they were in contact with
The author also addresses the controversy over the safety of Americans concerning the virus. The argument is that there is less safety as two nurses that treated a Liberian in a Dallas hospital became infected. However, the health sector has engaged in
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