Nobody downloaded yet

The Nature of HIV and the Implications of its Evolutionary Origin on Treatment - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
The Nature of HIV and the Implications of its Evolutionary Origin on Treatment Name Subject Teacher Date               Outline I. Structure II. Process of Entry into The Cell A. Transmission B. Reverse Transcription and Integration C. Transcription and Translation D…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER92.9% of users find it useful
The Nature of HIV and the Implications of its Evolutionary Origin on Treatment
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"The Nature of HIV and the Implications of its Evolutionary Origin on Treatment"

Download file to see previous pages The Vaccine Hypothesis The Nature of HIV and the Implications of Its Evolutionary Origin HIV, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is the cause of one of the most lethal diseases known to infect humankind – AIDS. According to information from the National Institutes of Health, AIDS accounted for 1.8 million deaths worldwide in 2009 alone with 33.3 million already suffering from the disease and 2.6 million who were newly infected (“Quick Facts,” 2011). In the United States alone, 1 million people are currently living with AIDS and 21% of those infected remain unaware of their condition (“Quick Facts,” 2011). Furthermore, an alarming fact based on information from One.org states that around 4,900 people die from AIDS everyday and that 7,100 are infected at the same rate (“HIV/AIDS,” 2012). It is also very sad that those affected by HIV are mostly the youth aged 15 to 24 years old (“AIDS, Sex and Teens,” 2010). Based on the previously stated statistics and information, there is every reason to worry about AIDS epidemic. Most of the responsibility of controlling the spread of the virus rests upon the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the governments of the world. Nevertheless, efforts to develop a cure for AIDS have proved to be fruitless. What is the main reason behind this and what is the missing link, that somehow makes medical experts and scientists keep losing the battle against AIDS and prevents them from developing a good treatment for it? An insight into the evolutionary origin of HIV provides answers to the questions about AIDS that have baffled everyone since the 1970s when the disease first broke out. Structure HIV usually infects the human host cell as an aggregate of virions or “roughly spherical particles” (Noble, n.d.). These particles, whose surfaces are studded with multiple spikes, are coated with a fatty material called the viral envelope, and it is this specific structure that facilitates entry of the virion into the cell (Noble, n.d.). HIV differs from other viruses in that its genes are made up of RNA, or ribonucleic acid, whereas other viruses have DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, in their genetic structure (Noble, 2010). The fact that it is RNA, and not DNA, that constitutes the main genetic material of HIV implies a relatively more complex process of replication compared to other viruses, as well as a natural tendency of HIV to engage in a rather continuous replication inside the host cell because of the “long terminal repeat” in RNA (Noble, n.d.). Another characteristic feature of HIV is its simplicity of structure, which accounts for it “rapid rate of evolutionary change” (Rambaut et al., 2004). The fact that HIV is structurally simple and that it evolves rapidly means that it can readily develop resistance against any treatment and that it immediately develops a new lineage of resistant virions (Rambaut et al., 2004; “HIV: The Ultimate Evolver,” 2001). However, in order to fully understand how rapidly HIV evolves in the host cell, one needs to know how exactly the virus enters the cell. Process of Entry into The Cell According to CDC, HIV is transmitted through contact of mucous membrane, damaged tissue or blood with infected fluids, which can be any of the following: blood, semen, breast milk, vaginal secretions, body fluids that contain blood, as well as fluids that surround the brain, the spinal cord, bone joints and the unborn baby (“ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“The Nature of HIV and the Implications of its Evolutionary Origin on Research Paper”, n.d.)
The Nature of HIV and the Implications of its Evolutionary Origin on Research Paper. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/english/1441791-hiv-aids
(The Nature of HIV and the Implications of Its Evolutionary Origin on Research Paper)
The Nature of HIV and the Implications of Its Evolutionary Origin on Research Paper. https://studentshare.org/english/1441791-hiv-aids.
“The Nature of HIV and the Implications of Its Evolutionary Origin on Research Paper”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/english/1441791-hiv-aids.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
ADHD and its Treatment
Case Study on ADHD and its Treatment Name Course Instructor Date Case Study on ADHD and its Treatment Analysis The case of Chantel is similar to that of many children who are suffering from ADHD. This is, however, a manageable disorder and with the right intervention methods, one can continue to live a normal life (Dobie, 2012).
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Depression. Its Impacts/ Treatment/ Counseling
Depression can be described as a disorder whose symptoms are reflected through moods, which exceeds normal sadness or grief. Depression is not only exemplified by pessimistic ideas, and behavior, but it can be characterized by changes in the functions of the body, for instance, changes in eating and sleeping habits, as well as in sexual activities.
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
N 750 words, discuss and provide support for the evolutionary origins of the following organisms or disease HIV,and how or why it spread to humans
The earliest reported case of HIV in the United States could be traced back to the year 1981, wherein the disease was first detected among homosexual men (Avert, 2012). However,
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
HIV: Drug Treatment
There has been a considerable shift in the responsibilities of a nurse, from clinical settings to leadership roles. The change can be attributed to the ongoing experiments and development of HIV drug and treatment. Although scientist could not develop a cent percent effective medicine for AIDS, it is identified that antiretroviral drugs are capable of reducing both the mortality and morbidity of HIV infection.
5 Pages(1250 words)Term Paper
It has now been believed that HIV originated from monkeys because the simian immunodeficiency virus resembles the two types of HIV. That is HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-2 resembles the virus in white monkeys from western
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
Autism - History, Nature and Treatment
Needless to say, a child’s confinement to a hospital, despite its length, can easily torment parents. Considerably, being informed that one’s child has autism, which could take a lifetime to cure, is probably the worst situation a parent could face. In light of this, research regarding autism is very significant as it gives cheerful hope to every parent of a child with autism.
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
This infection results to the destruction or impairment of the function of the immune system cells. With the progression of the infection, the patient’s immune system grows weaker. This creates room for vulnerability to infections. AIDS is said to be the highest stage of HIV infection since a person with HIV can take 10-15 years prior to the development of AIDS (World Health Organization, 2012).
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
Evolutionary Psychology: Undestanding Human Nature
These adaptations originate from the theoretical framework spelling out natural assortment and sexual selection. Evolutionary psychologists establish that the human mind is organized and divided into different modules, each with its respective functionality as a separate entity, performing diverse functions just like the body (Badcock, 2000).
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
According to study, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is currently the leading cause of deaths in female inmates. In most cases, female inmates are poor with little or no education background and are members of ethnic minorities. These categories of women are aged between 25 to 34 years and are unmarried.
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic The Nature of HIV and the Implications of its Evolutionary Origin on Treatment for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us