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Photosynthesis,Chromosomes,DNA Structure - Essay Example

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Photosynthesis, Chromosomes, DNA Structure Name University Name Introduction: Considering a study on general biology, the most important component of a living body includes the cell that forms the body of every living organism, with divisions of live cells and production of new ones…
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Photosynthesis,Chromosomes,DNA Structure
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"Photosynthesis,Chromosomes,DNA Structure"

Download file to see previous pages Photosynthesis, Chromosomes, and DNA Structure: Photosynthesis is a process that primarily occurs in plants. As Postman (2010, p.200) describes, in this process, green plants make use of light energy and forms organic compounds. The solar energy is stored in the chrolophyll present in the chloroplasts of plants. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and water are combined with the stored energy from light resulting in formation of glucose. In the process, oxygen is released into the air. Although the process primarily occurs in plants, however there are certain other organisms and bacteria also that perform this function. Cummings in his studies discussed about the understanding of the structures of DNA and chromosomes, and the organization of DNA in chromosomes. Chromosomes were discovered as the components of a cell that carried genes. Studies were conducted to identify the nature of the genes that are carried by the chromosomes as well as the nucleus of the cell. Several studies over the years identified and recognized that as far as bacteria are concerned, DNA proves to be the genetic material. The chemistry of DNA reflects that nucleotides are the subunits that form the nucleic acids, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). A base, a sugar and a group of phosphate comprise the structure of each nucleotide. Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine are four base components of DNA. The sugar that is contained in the DNA is known as deoxyribose. Polynucleotides may be formed through linkages of nucleotides resulting in formation of chains. There are two such polynucleotide chains in DNA (Cummings, 2010, p.193). The two polynucleotide chains in DNA are placed in opposite direction. These chains are held with the help of hydrogen bonds located between corresponding bases in the converse strands. A right handed helix is formed as the two strands wind around each other. DNA goes through the process of replication where the strands of DNA are separated through proteins. The base sequence in the template strand is read by DNA polymerase while nucleotides are inserted in the complementary strands. As far as the organization of DNA in chromosomes is concerned, studies reveal that DNA is coiled around groups of histones resulting in formation of nucleosomes. Fibers are often formed as the nucleosomes gets supercoiled widening at right angles to the chromosomal axes. It has been obtained that the chromosomal structures are dynamic in nature such that it allows the uncoiling and recoiling in the different stages of cell cycle (Cummings, 2010, p.193). DNA is the hereditary material mostly in human beings and in other organisms. DNA has the ability to replicate and it can lead to formations of RNAs or proteins (Cells and DNA, 2012). Photosynthesis on the other hand is primarily a phenomenon associated with green plants. It is through the process of photosynthesis that green plants are capable of growing their roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. It is due to this particular phenomenon that plants are considered as the producers and hence they are the basic food materials for every food chain and for every other living organism. While the functions of DNA and chromosomes are internal to a human body or body of an organism, the process of photosynthesis is also beneficial towards nature, ecology and the environment. It is because through ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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