Theories of Evolution Concepts of Phyletic Gradualism Phyletic gradualism as a theory hypothesises that all creatures undergo evolution which occurs slowly and gradually (Futuyma, 2005). In other words, evolution of the whole species into a new one occurs when throughout time organisms experience small adaptive changes with respect to their physiology and behaviour (Darwin, 1859)…
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Concepts of Punctuated Equilibrium and Fossil Records Punctuated equilibrium holds that speciation most likely occurs in a population by involving a small group (Gould, 2002). The small group can be separated geographically from the mainstream undergoing adaptive changes to ensure survival and eventually producing new species that do not interbreed. In this respect, the new species does not leave fossils at the same place as the old species upon being successful. The new species only does so if it is different enough to coexist with it relatives or moves back into its ancestral range. What this means is that fossil records at any place will not record the speciation process. The theory holds that the evolution process occurs too fast to be noted in fossil records (Gould & Eldredge, 1977). This therefore means that the missing links in the gradual evolution theory forms part of the evolution process. Punctuated Equilibrium Evolution Process The punctuated equilibrium evolutionary theory suggests that rapid evolution occurs when a small isolated population experiences strong selection and fast change owing to the small size of the population and the favourable environment. New selection pressures are exerted on the small population by the new environment and genetic drift influences the evolutionary process based on the peripatric speciation model (Gould & Eldredge, 1977). Furthermore, the adaptive changes in lineages occur mostly during speciation periods. During evolution, the periods of relative stasis are a factor of the large population which implies little genetic drift and unchanging environment. Once the small population which that has undergone rapid change finds a stable environment, evolutionary change will least likely occure (Evolution Berkeley.edu (n.d.). The new species may also outcompete the old ones causing their extinction. Punctuated Equilibrium Evolution Patterns and World History Once evolution has occurred based on the punctuated equilibrium model and a large population of the new population is in existence, occasional fossil preservation occurs. The process produces a fossil records pattern that is characterized by alternating stasis and rapid change fossil layers. Records of some foraminiferans depict the punctuated pattern suggested by the punctuated equilibrium model. The long history of the world is seen in the fact that the punctuated patterns reveal the long passage of time (Avise, Nelson & Sugita, 1994). For example, in the case of the foraminiferans, based on the shape of the shells, the change from Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene is shown to have occurred over tens of millions of years. Evidence of Gradual Changes during Evolution Scientists have analyzed fossil records and have evidence of punctuated evolution based on many organisms. For example, fossil records of the bryozoan reveal this kind of pattern. The fossil records reveal that one species appeared for the first time close to 140 million years ago and remained the same for close to 40 million years from the time of its first appearance (Gould, 2002). Thereafter, an explosion of diversification occurred followed by a long duration of stability. Evidence of Punctuated Changes in the Process of Evolution While it has previously been suggested that the foraminiferans are evidence of
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The issue was (and is) controversial because it contradicts the classical understandings of creation that are held by most religions. In Victorian England, the research opened up the debate regarding religion and its role in the life of man. The aspects of life that were connected to religion too came under the shadow of doubt as a result of the discoveries that were made by Darwin.
Obviously, they have also integrated national economies and various cultures into an international economy and a new global business environment where all business environments interact with each other. This paper will analyze this interaction process and its effects on the ongoing evolution of business theories.
Advances in genetics helped the biologists a lot in explaining the basis of variation and inheritance. Theory of evolution or the theory of natural selection influences all the aspects of modern biology. This paper briefly analyses the principles of evolution with the help of some specific traits among living things.
In looking at other aspects of scientific discovery that are fully understood, it can be inferred that those aspects that have limited discovery may also be true, thus within God’s plan. The one true aspect of worshiping God is that as his children, his plan is of his own knowledge. Therefore, to suggest that the plainly seen concepts that can be supported by fact are not of God, is to question His plan.
NATURAL AND HUMAN SCIENCES.
Theory maintains imperative significance both in natural and human sciences. It is theoretical framework that gives a go to the conducting of researches on various topics in order to prove or reject the authenticity about the characteristics of natural or social phenomena.
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The business organizations in the current business environment are faced with numerous challenges. It is crucial from leaders to adapt to the changing business environment in order to execute effective decision making. The trend of globalization along with speedy technological advancements has led the organizations to be vulnerable to several environmental threats.
Europe by the 19th century was also in a process of social, political, and economic transition brought about by the collapse of monarchies, the rise of republican governments, and the newfound economic benefits of the industrial revolution.
The respective governments had to find new sources of raw materials and labor to fuel the economic growth that supported the related political ambitions of their rulers, and Africa was the continent of choice because of its size, its wealth of natural resources, and the strategic advantage of force that European nations enjoyed.
The author states that evolution can then be explained as something that is scientific as it is able to explain the physical and chemical bases of the formation of life on earth. It is the most rational explanation as to the origin of life on earth that are based on the interventions of the supernatural.
This essay compares the theories that have been used to explain the evolution of complex societies in two books: Ancient Civilizations and Patterns in Prehistory. The evolution of complex societies is different from other societies both in the number of differentiated societal parts and in decision-making functions of the components of the society.
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