DNA Functions and Structure - Essay Example

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DNA Functions and Structure DNA Functions and Structure DNA is the commonly and widely known acronym for the Deoxyribonucleic Acid. It is a form of a nucleic acid which contains hereditary guidelines responsible for the development and smooth operative of all the living creatures, including plants, animals and microorganisms…
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Download file to see previous pages These are known as the nuclear DNA and the mitochondrial DNA, respectively. A very significant trait of the DNA is that it can very efficiently and easily “replicate, or make copies of itself. Each strand of DNA in the double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is critical when cells divide because each new cell needs to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell” (Genetics Home Reference, 2012). The DNA, regardless of its overly microscopic size, has many functions under its assigned responsibilities. The DNA normally exists in the form of either prokaryotes or eukaryotes, existing in a different chromosomal stage in either of the states. Under the biological functions that the DNA performs, there exists the storage of hereditary and genetic information by the genes which determine the traits and features of the future generations. Secondly, the DNA is responsible for the transcription and translation of the genetic codes that are matched with its matching RNA, in further course. Lastly, the DNA carries out the replication of cell, which means that the cells divide amongst themselves and create copies of their own selves, in order to grow, in number and size. This is considered to be the bases for the notion of biological inheritance. These functions of the DNA are carried out simultaneously. The efficiency of this is ensured by the structure of the DNA which is double helix in nature. Details of these functions will discussed in greater detail, in the following. A polymer is a composition and a collection of numerous monomers called mononucleotide units. The structure of this nucleotide unit is as simple as the concept of this unit itself. These nucleotide units are formed by bonds of phosphates, sugars and a heterocyclic base. The chemical reaction is sped up and catalyzed by specialist enzymes. As a result of the components of this structure of this type of nucleotide units, after intermolecular dehydration, they form phosphate ester bonds. In a situation where nitrogenous bases on the DNAs complementing each other are called as base pairs. There has been extensive research and there have been many conclusions to the question of the combinations of the base pairs that are formed. The conclusions, with respect to the researches have varied with time and so have the combinations that are formed, according to each research. “DNA replication is a biological process that occurs in all living organisms and copies their DNA; it is the basis for biological inheritance. The process starts when one double-stranded DNA molecule produces two identical copies of the molecule. The cell cycle (mitosis) also pertains to the DNA replication/reproduction process. The cell cycle includes, interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Each strand of the original double-stranded DNA molecule serves as template for the production of the complementary strand, a process referred to as semiconservative replication. Cellularproofreading and error toe-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication” (Berg, Tymozko, Stryer, & Clarke, 2002) The RNA, like the DNA, is an acronym for the Ribonucleic Acid and is made up of lengthy chains of micro structures called nucleotides, consisting of sugars and a nucleobase. The structure of ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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