Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Sickle Cell Anemia - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease which is inherited, and can be passed down several generations through both the parents. The term ‘sickle cell’ comes from the sickle shaped or crescent shaped form of the hemoglobin molecules…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.6% of users find it useful
Sickle Cell Anemia
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Sickle Cell Anemia"

Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease which is inherited, and can be passed down several generations through both the parents. The term ‘sickle cell’ comes from the sickle shaped or crescent shaped form of the hemoglobin molecules. This sickling of the cells is caused due to a change in one of the nucleotides of a DNA molecule out of the billion other cells present in the human body. This change may seem minor, but the results are disastrous. A person affected with sickle cell anemia inherits a mutated or recessive allele from both the parents. Therefore the patient contains faulty hemoglobin in the red blood cells, which causes the cells to become deformed and sickled when oxygen levels in the blood get low. In this sickled form the red blood cells are less efficient in transporting oxygen and are more likely to stick in blood capillaries preventing the blood flow. This mutation causes the shape of the hemoglobin molecule, present in the blood, to change, preventing it from carrying oxygen around the body. Various organs are deprived of the oxygen molecule inhibiting them from performing their basic anabolic and catabolic functions, and hence causing them to wear out. These sickle shaped hemoglobin molecules cause the blood to become stick and the floe becomes irregular. Under normal conditions, hemoglobin cells are donut shaped, and can flow easily with the blood, in arteries and capillaries. They are flexible and hence can squeeze in and out of capillaries. But sickle shaped hemoglobin molecules are rigid and tend to get stuck in the arteries, causing the blood flow to become restricted. (Bjorklund) Human beings contain 23 chromosomes inside the nucleus of a cell, and these chromosomes contain all the genetic material responsible for their characteristics. A single unit of DNA is known as a gene. Genes contain the information required to synthesize proteins, and these proteins are accountable for our traits. These genes contain a sequence of nucleotides which dictate the sequence of the corresponding amino acids, that are linked together to form polypeptide chains and hence, proteins. Mutations occur when there is a change in this sequence, and the results could be very harmful as this change in the order of nucleotides, could change the structure and function of a protein completely. There are many types of mutations and they could either be beneficial or harmful. This type of mutation is an example of a point mutation or a missense mutation, and is obviously extremely harmful, if the gene occurs in a homozygotic form. It occurs in the beta globin gene (HBB) which is present in the 11th chromosome. The HBB gene is responsible for normal blood production. The point mutation causes the beta hemoglobin molecule to convert the GAG codon into a GUG codon by transcription i.e. it encodes the amino acid valine rather than the seventh amino acid, glutamic acid. Valine is hydrophobic (water hating) causing the hemoglobin molecule to bend inwards, causing it to become sickle shaped. There are no other changes in the structure. (Eldra Solomon) Sequence for Normal Hemoglobin ATG GTG CAC CTG ACT CCT GAG GAG AAG TCT GCC GTT ACT START Val His Leu Thr Pro Glu Glu Lys Ser Ala Val Thr Sequence for Sickle Cell Hemoglobin ATG GTG CAC CTG ACT CCT GTG GAG AAG TCT GCC GTT ACT START Val His Leu Thr Pro Val Glu Lys Ser Ala Val Thr This sickle cell gene mutation is mostly common in African people or people from the Middle East. Not everyone carrying the gene could be affected severely by sickle cell anemia. Each gene has different versions called alleles. A person carrying one allele for sickle cells, but one for normal cells is said to be heterozygous or a carrier of sickling hemoglobin. The problems of sickling, clotting and blockage could be minor and controlled if certain precautions are taken. In most cases, carriers only show symptoms of sickle cell disease if they deprived of oxygen, such as during extreme exertion or going to areas of high altitude where the air is thinner. People who contain both the alleles for sickling are called homozygous and most of their hemoglobin molecules are sickle shaped. The allele which is responsible for sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive gene, which means that it shows all its characteristics if both the alleles are present(John David Rainer). A recessive gene is unable to show it’s characteristics in the presence of a dominant allele, in this case, the dominant allele is the normal hemoglobin gene. But sickle cell disease is partially recessive, which means that when it is present with a dominant allele (in a heterozygous form), it will still show some of its traits under specific circumstances. A person can become homozygous for the gene if it receives the sickle cell allele from both the parents. That is if both parents are carrying the sickle cell allele, there is a 25% chance that the child will get the disease and a 50% chance that he will be a carrier. Works Cited Bjorklund, Ruth. Sickle Cell Anemia. Marshall Cavendish, 2010. Eldra Solomon, Linda Berg, Diana W. Martin. Biology. Cengage Learning, 2010. John David Rainer, Foundation of Thanatology. Genetic Disease: The Unwanted Inheritance. Routledge, 1989. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Sickle Cell Anemia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words”, n.d.)
Sickle Cell Anemia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words. Retrieved from
(Sickle Cell Anemia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
Sickle Cell Anemia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words.
“Sickle Cell Anemia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


Sickle cell anemia

...? Sickle Cell Anaemia Task Chapter 4 Sickle cell anaemia is a disease that is genetic and one that leads to blood disorder and usually transferred during birth. Several factors indeed affect pregnant women who have the sickle cell trait or who have the disease and the factors are, fear anxiety and level of education. Most pregnant women fear telling their husbands that they should go, be screened, and would rather give birth to children who have sickle cell anaemia. The contributory factor to sickle cell anaemia is the fact that most people lack education about the disease and so are not aware about it. Most people do not know the difference between the sickle cell disease and the sickle cell trait and instead they ignore all... this and...
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper

Sickle cell anemia

...? Sickle Cell Anemia INTRODUCTION “Sickle cell anemia is a disease passed down through families in which red blood cells form an abnormal crescent shape. It is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S” (Sickle cell anemia, 2011). Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein and an important component of blood. It is the oxygen carrier in blood. In other words, Hemoglobin is responsible for distributing oxygen to different body organs. It should be noted that adequate oxygen supply is necessary for many of the body organs to function well. So any defects occur to...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Sickle Cell Anemia

...25th December SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Sickle cell anemia is a disease that is categorized at the molecular level. It is an inherited disease which can be passed on from generation to generation from both the parents. The term sickle cell comes from the sickle shape or the crescent type shape of the affected hemoglobin molecules. It is caused due to a change in just a single nucleotide in a DNA molecule out of a billion others present in the cells of the human body. It may seem like a minor change but the effect is disastrous. Each cell of a human body...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Sickle Cell Anemia in Adults

...Sickle Cell Anemia in Adults Abstract Sickle cell anemia or sickle cell disease is a pathological condition that manifests in early infancy. The condition is associated with morbidity and mortality and many children succumb to its complications in childhood and adolescence. Some of them enter into adulthood and suffer from chronic complications related to chronic hemolysis, recurrent infarctions, chronic organ disease and chronic pain. The dreaded complication of the disease in adults are infarction crises which can manifest as dactylitis, femoral head necrosis, acute abdomen, hematuria and stroke. The...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper

Sickle Cell Anemia

...1 Sickle Cell Anemia Proposal for funding "Sickle Cell Anemia is the most common inherited blood disorder in the United s. Affecting about 72,000 Americans or 1 in 500 African Americans". (SCDAA 2005) "Contrary to the view in western science that Sickle Cell Anemia is mostly a black people's problem, Fr. Oji Abai, a Nigerian researcher living in the United States, has shown that Sickle Cell Anemia is found in all races. On a per capita basis, it is most prevalent in Greece". (Henry) "Sickle Cell Anemia is characterized by episodes of pain, chronic hemolytic anemia, and severe infections, usually beginning in early childhood". (SCDAA) "The most common form of (SCA) found in North America... for males...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Sickle-Cell Anemia

...Sickle-cell Anemia Introduction: Sickle-cell anemia is a term that de s a group of genetic disorders caused by sickle shaped hemoglobin Hgb S or Hb S. In patients with this disease the human red blood cells take a different shape upon deoxygenation because of polymerization of the abnormal sickle hemoglobin. This process causes damage to the red blood cell membrane and sometimes the red blood cells get attached in blood vessels. This attachment or adherence of the red blood cells deprives the tissues of oxygen causing ischemia and...
8 Pages(2000 words)Assignment

Sickle cell anemia

...Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle Cell Anemia A disease that affects mostly African Americans in this country with only an occasional Hispanic person suffering from it is sickle cell anemia. Also called sickle cell disease, this illness is the result of a genetic mutation that originally occurred in direct response to environmental dangers but that poses a significant risk to the offspring of its carriers. People suffering from this condition can generally trace their ancestry back to tropical or sub-tropical regions where malaria has been a problem. ...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Sickle Cell Anemia

... Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder that affects more than seventy thousand Americans and millions more people worldwide (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). It is highly prevalent in populations of African descent (Ashley-Koch, Yang and Olney). The more common symptoms of the disease are related to anemia and pain (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute). Fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain, pale complexion, headache, and dizziness are the symptoms that are related to anemia. Sudden and acute pain symptoms occur when the sickled red blood cells clump together in the bloodstream and block blood flow in the limbs. This pain can last from several hours to days. Chronic pain,lasting for weeks... and...
4 Pages(1000 words)Term Paper

Sickle cell anemia

...Sickle cell anemia (SCA) Sickle cell anemia Sickle cell anemia (SCA) comes in a varied array of forms of sickle cell illness, andit is genetic blood disorder which is mostly found in the United States. This disease mostly affects the African Americans where there are about 1500 people admitted due to this disease annually (Geller, 2009). Around 70,000 people, who are from sub African, even though there are some reports in India, some parts of central and South American areas, southern parts of Europe, and Caribbean regions mostly experience...
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper

Sickle Cell Anemia

...Sickle Cell Anemia Single cell anemia is a hereditary disease that often characterized with abnormal red blood cells assuming rigid sickle shapes instead of the normal biconcave shape. The condition normally results in severe symptoms including anemia, pain and various life threatening complications associated with decreased flexibility of red blood cells. Sickle anemia is particularly caused by the mutation of a gene that is responsible for making hemoglobin proteins that carry oxygen in the red blood cells. Individuals with one copy of...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Sickle Cell Anemia for FREE!

Contact Us