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In other words, there are some natural selection traits that favor sickle cell-anemia allele in some individuals. Malaria occurs in the tropical zones and is caused by a protozoa transmitted by the anopheles female mosquito. As such, people from an African descent have the sickle cell anemia allele considering that heterozygotes for the allele are protected from malaria while not showing any significant characteristics of sickle-cell anemia. These people can then live to adult age and transfer these alleles to their offspring, which guarantees the transfer of the allele along the genetic line of individuals, leading to a new gene pool.
Therefore, for some recessive alleles that are destructive to the recessive homozygotes, natural selection is an important process through which the heterozygotes of the recessive alleles have to survive (Sabeti, 2008). For instance, when an individual carrying the sickle cell allele is in an area where malaria is not prevalent, having the sickle cell anemia allele does not guarantee any survival advantage. As such, in countries such as United States, there are much fewer cases of sickle cell alleles compared to tropical regions such as in Africa. However, the disease is still reported among people of the African descent, though on low frequencies. This is because, the time required for the allele frequency to reduce significantly to negligible amounts has not passed. With the passage of time, the sickle cell anemia may become extinct in these areas. Application of advanced technologies would ensure individuals are in a position to make better and informed decisions on reproduction, which may help in ensuring extinction of a number of genetic diseases from passing through
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(Sickle-Cell Anemia and Malaria Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
“Sickle-Cell Anemia and Malaria Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/anthropology/1637276-sickle-cell-anemia-and-malaria.
The protozoa parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium are the etiological agents of this infectious tropical disease. These parasites fall in different species namely P. falciparum, P. ovale, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. knowlesi. Severity and pathogenesis of the malaria is subject to the type of parasite.
It is the oxygen carrier in blood. In other words, Hemoglobin is responsible for distributing oxygen to different body organs. It should be noted that adequate oxygen supply is necessary for many of the body organs to function well. So any defects occur to the Hemoglobin can cause problems in the functioning of different body organs.
The term sickle cell comes from the sickle shape or the crescent type shape of the affected hemoglobin molecules. It is caused due to a change in just a single nucleotide in a DNA molecule out of a billion others present in the cells of the human body. It may seem like a minor change but the effect is disastrous.
This sickling of the cells is caused due to a change in one of the nucleotides of a DNA molecule out of the billion other cells present in the human body. This change may seem minor, but the results are disastrous. A person affected with sickle cell anemia inherits a mutated or recessive allele from both the parents.
This process causes damage to the red blood cell membrane and sometimes the red blood cells get attached in blood vessels. This attachment or adherence of the red blood cells deprives the tissues of oxygen causing ischemia and infarction.The disease is chronic with periodic painful attacks,damage of internal organs with complications of strokes and subsequent shortened lifespan.The average life span of sickle cell patients is just 40 years.
ures like premature destruction of red blood cells, elevated erythropoietin levels and increased erythropoietin levels in the marrow and other sites to compensate for the loss of red cells and accumulation of the products of hemoglobin catabolism due to increased rate of red
Patients affected by SCD need red blood cell transfusions on a regular basis to reduce morbidity and mortality. The transfusions are administered intermittently to control or prevent a serious complication of SCD, and as a perioperative measure. Or, as a chronic
ific name by which red blood cell are known is “erythrocyte,” meaning “hollow red cell.” Red blood cells attains the red color from hemoglobin, which constitute around 97% of the dry weight of red blood cells, and about 35% of the total weight, including water.
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