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The genetic component occurs because of the combined effect of mutated genes. The environmental factor is the lack of vitamins particularly folate during early pregnancy.
Checkpoints in a cell cycle are meant for the regulation for the proliferation of the cells. These checkpoints are basically present in the G1 and S phase of the cell cycle. The role of these checkpoints is to check for any DNA damage or other problem in the cell before proceeding in to the cell cycle. The reason behind this is to either correct the DNA damage or if it cannot be repaired to move the cell towards apoptosis. The tumor suppressor genes code for proteins which are involved in the repair of the damaged DNA in the cell cycle and initiation of apoptosis if the damaged DNA cannot be repaired to prevent the formation of abnormal cells. The proto-oncogenes act by stimulating the cell cycle by the formation of transcriptions factors which are responsible for the function of genes and by forming signal transducers which are responsible for the stimulus responsible for the initiation of the cell cycle.
Signal transduction is involved in the passing of signals to the nucleus of the cell for essential processes which include replication and transcription. Signal transduction occurs by the binding of a molecule to a receptor which may be located on the cell membrane or within the cell. This molecule carries signals and activates the receptor and brings about changes in the cell by sending signals which may lead to transcription. Increased signal transduction can result from mutations in genes that code for systems involved in carrying out signal transduction. This can lead to cancer because if signal transduction increases, the cells replicate and transcribe at a higher rate and are not under the normal regulatory control.
Children suffering from Down syndrome have very high chances of developing leukemia. Also patients who have leukemia along with Down syndrome have a
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This process is regulated by genetic and epigenetic factors while it is modulated by environmental factors such as stress, exposure to ultraviolet radiation and environmental pollution. A gene is defined as a basic unit of heredity. These are self-replicating, DNA structures that are responsible for the presence of certain traits.
There are several reasons why a person is inflicted with this disease though a very definitive cause has not been established for all cancers and it is also known that not all forms of tumors are malignant and dangerous. When cancer really spread in the body, they may also enter through the lymphatic system or bloodstream to sites other than the major organ where these cells lie (Cairns et al 2011).
It may be possible to give a fair estimate of the race to which an individual belongs by carefully considering and analyzing his/her appearance. However, there is always subjectivity in such an assessment as many people belonging to different races often look very similar.
Cancer describes diseases whose growth of cells is beyond control. There are numerous categories of cancer with each category exuding distinct tendencies based on areas initially affected. Scientists report that more than one hundred cancer types exist in the world today.
sequence): Isoleucine+ glycine + asparagine + Aspartic acid + proline + STOP What is the significance of the first and last codons of an mRNA transcript? Explanation: The significance of the first codon is that it determines signals the beginning of a translation point, usually AUG, which signals the inclusion of methionine.
The case study in concern reflects how Mr. Amos has developed stage 3 lung cancer led from his cigarette smoking for 30 long years. Considering the case of Mr. Amos, the present report answers a few questions in relation with the manner in which smoking tobacco affects the human body, particularly the respiratory system.
A cardiac catheterization revealed a partial blockage of four coronary arteries, and he was scheduled for bypass surgery. Discuss the consequences of decreased coronary blood flow on myocardial function; a description of
They are genetically modified through injection of various chemicals or connecting them to different species in order to create a whole new breed. This results to plants that look bigger and healthier on the
The FGF family is involved in the normal developmental and physiological processes of human biology. The research observes the FGF family evolution in the chordates and the eumetazoan family which helps in understanding the evolution of the FGF family brought
, properties, interactions with the environment, function, division, death and organelles (their locations within cells, functions, structures, compositions and adaptations) found within cells are delved into. The study of cells is done in a molecular level or is conducted suing
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