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Patient Scenario: Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer - Essay Example

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1. What are the components of physical examination? Describe each component.
The physical examination for prostate cancer has two main components, namely Digital Rectal examination (DRE) and measuring blood levels of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). …
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Patient Scenario: Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer
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"Patient Scenario: Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer"

Download file to see previous pages Prostate specific antigen is secreted by prostate into the semen, some of it normally leaks into the blood stream. However, in prostate cancer, the levels in blood rise very high which the guide further examination like prostate biopsy. (Melman & Newnham, 2011).
2. Mr. Smith’s blood pressure was 160/100 mmHg.
a. How does a medical provider take or measure blood pressure?
Blood pressure is measured by using sphygmomanometer. The cuff (40% of the arm circumference) is inflated and the brachial artery is auscultated to measure the blood pressure. The cuff is deflated slowly. The pressure at which the korsakoff sounds become audible is the systolic blood pressure and the pressure at which these sounds disappear are taken as diastolic blood pressure (Boon & Davidson, 2006).
b. What do the top (numerator) and bottom (denominator) numbers mean in the biological sense?
The numerator indicates the systolic blood pressure, which is the pressure with which heart contracts to push blood against resistance through the arteries. The denominator indicates diastolic blood pressure, which is the pressure in the peripheral circulation when the heart relaxes during consecutive beats.
c. What is the significance the size of these two numbers?...
Mr. Smiths’ blood pressure is not in the normal range. His blood pressure was measured to be 165/100 mm Hg, which exceeds well above the normal range of 120/ 80 mm Hg. This puts him in the stage 2 hypertension (blood pressure equal to or above 160/100 mm Hg). e. Discuss the possible health issues anticipated for a person with a blood pressure of 165/100 mm Hg. The person with the blood pressure of 165/100 mm Hg is at highly increased risk of suffering from cardiovascular diseases. High blood pressure increases the workload on heart muscle. To compensate for the increasing demand, left ventricle undergoes remodeling and hypertrophy, which in turn puts the person at an increased risk of arrhythmias, sudden death and heart failure in the long run. The vessels are also damaged as a result of atherosclerosis, and the end organ effects are evident in the form of retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke (Porth, 2007). 3. Based on the data provided, what laboratory tests were performed and what samples were taken from the patient? Select one of the laboratory tests ordered for Mr. Smith and discuss why Mr. Smith’s physician might have ordered the test and the information she might have expected to obtain from that particular test. The blood samples were taken for the laboratory tests that include complete blood count, electrolyte panel, blood glucose, renin, ACTH and cortisol. Urine samples were collected to measure levels of Potassium and 24 hour urinary aldosterone. Glucose intolerance and hypokalemic alkalosis are common presentations of ectopic ACTH production in patients with prostatic carcinoma. So, the physician ordered serum ACTH and cortisol levels suspecting the Para neoplastic Cushing’s syndrome accompanying prostatic adenocarcinoma. The raised levels of ACTH ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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