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Is Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies (ACTs) a More Efficacy Way to Cure Malaria when Comparing it with Chloroquine Therapy - Book Report/Review Example

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Is Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACTs) a more efficacy way to cure malaria when comparing it with Chloroquine therapy? Introduction Malaria is considered to be one of the major health problems in the Third World countries, impeding people’s health and their growth…
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Is Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies (ACTs) a More Efficacy Way to Cure Malaria when Comparing it with Chloroquine Therapy
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Download file to see previous pages Malaria is caused by four species of protozoan parasites and they are Plasmodium falciparum (P.falciparum), P. vivax, P.ovale and P.Malariae. Although, P.vivax is the most wide spread form of malaria infection in the world, Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe disease and responsible for most deaths and serious morbidity (Gbotosho et al., 2011). Malaria is also regarded as a social and behavioral problem, and that contributes to the perception and treatment of the disease. Malaria has become one of the deadly diseases in the world. The first line drug initially used for the treatment of malaria was Chloroquine. Plasmodium falciparum became resistant to the chloroquine drug. Hence, the search for the new potential drug for the treatment for malaria was started and drugs such as Sulfaxonine – pyrimethamide, Mefloquine, Halofantrine, 4- aminoquinoline, amidiaquine, hydroxyl chloroquine and artemisinin based combination therapies were tried for the treatment of malaria. The Artemisinin – based combination therapies (ACTS) are found to be more effective than all the other drugs. The extensive studies for the treatment of malaria have proved that ACTs could be the optimal solution for this disease. Background The history of drugs used for the treatment of malaria goes back to hundreds of years. In 1820, quinine, an alkaloid, was identified as an important therapeutic agent for malaria. However, quinine has very short shelf life and hence, chloroquine was identified and used for the treatment of malaria. Chloroquine has a prolonged half-life of 33 days and is active against asexual stages of all human species, except for strains of P.falciparum (Rukaria-Kaumbutho, Ojwang, & Oyieke, 1996). The low toxicity, low cost and importantly effectiveness to treat malaria are the essential factors, which are focused when choosing the treatment for malaria. Many malarial programs were planned and implemented but there are certain barriers for the complete success of the program. The major barrier for the treatment of malaria is the lack of proper attention to the right drugs. Multiple drug resistance to P.falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics, and for example, on the Thailand – Myanmar border, P.falciparum is resistant to all the available malarial drugs. Chloroquine resistance of P.falciparum was first suspected in Thailand 1957 (Rukaria-Kaumbutho, Ojwang, & Oyieke, 1996). The details about the agents, vectors and hosts within a particular ecosystem must be understood for improving the malaria control programs. Hence the need for the development of the new drug has emerged and the usage of the artesunate drugs for the treatment of malaria is under progress in many African countries. In Ghana, malaria is the hyper- endemic disease causing maximum mortality and morbidity in the country. The major drugs initially used for the treatment of malaria such as Fansidar and Maladrin failed to treat the disease and the need for the development of new drugs became necessary (Asase, Akwetey, & Achel, 2010). Need for the new drug The mechanism of resistance, factors that contribute to the spread of resistance and the parasite genetics are not well understood. The main basis of the chloroquine resistance is related to the capacity of resistant P.falciparum strains to excrete chloroquine rapidly, so that the intracellular concentration did not reach the toxic level. A better understanding of the mechanism, underlying the resistance and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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