What Role does Bundle Sheaths Play in C4 Plants - Essay Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
The plants use C3 and C4 photosynthesis for the production of energy. The C4 plants are very less in number but they contribute to 25% of the photosynthesis that occurs on earth…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.7% of users find it useful
What Role does Bundle Sheaths Play in C4 Plants
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "What Role does Bundle Sheaths Play in C4 Plants"

What role does bundle sheaths play in C4 Plants The plants use C3 and C4 photosynthesis for the production of energy. The C4 plants are very less innumber but they contribute to 25% of the photosynthesis that occurs on earth. C4 plants are classified into three groups based on the major decarboxylase enzyme involved in the decarboxylation of C4 acid cells. Bundle sheath cells are the major site of refixation of the CO2 and C4 acid decarboxylation. The mesophyll cells also concentrate the CO2 and send it to the bundle sheath cells. NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) are expressed in the bundle sheath cells of the C4 plants. They are the major enzymes responsible for the refixation of the CO2 from the C4 acid. (Nomura et al. 2005). In C4 leaves, each vein is surrounded by a ring of the bundle sheath cells surrounded again by the mesophyll cells. These bundle sheaths have the chloroplasts arranged centrifugally with the large starch granules and unstacked thylakoid membranes. In the bundle sheath cells ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) enzyme accumulates extensively. The specific enzyme activity can be easily determined by using the non aqueous fractionation techniques and pulse labeling techniques. (Majeran et al. 2005). The complete details about the C4 photosynthesis are not evolved. The maize is used extensively for the researches of C4 plants. In maize, the initial studies were done in 1981 and they found that mesophyll and the bundle sheath cells are distinct using the cell-specific gene expression. The studies have also found some interesting facts that some plants used C3 photosynthesis during the developing stage and C4 photosynthesis on maturation. This may be due to the changes in the enzyme synthesis pathways. The enzymes and proteins present in the bundle sheath cells and the mesophyll cells were studied and they have found distinct proteins in both the bundle sheath cells and the mesophyll cells. The chloroplast developmental dynamics was not performed so far. Similarly the end enzymes and their molecular mechanisms are not understood so far. (Bartsch et al. 2010). The chloroplast relocation movement is also not studied well in C4 plants. When the plants undergo a stress, the chloroplasts re- arrange according to the needs and this is studied in C3 plants. The chloroplasts present in the mesophyll change their position when they undergo a stress and the bundle sheath cells do not until maturation. The changes occurring between the developing stage and the maturation study can be performed. The transformation of the C3plants into c4 plants is the new area of research and many hypothesis and studies are showing promising results. The development of the C4 plants from C3 plants requires the understanding of the photosynthetic pathway. This provides a platform for the identification, regulation and biological consequences for the leaf vein pattern modification. The c4 plants have high vein density when compared with the C3 plants. (Sharpe et al. 2011). Hypothesis: The transformation of the C3 plants into C4 plants can be done by understanding the gene expression profile of the C3and C4 plants. Comparative transcriptomic and quantitative proteomic analysis of the C3 and C4 plants can be done by using the complete genome sequences of the chloroplasts. Methodology: Sequence similarity searching is the method for finding the similar sequences that are present in the C3 and C4 plants. Sequence similarity searching is done by using BLAST. BLAST ALL is the most commonly used sequence similarity search tool. It performs fast local alignment searches. Outcome: The expression level of the enzymes can be analysed and compared. All the enzymes and the metabolic precursors present in the C4 plants are also present in the C3 plants. But the level of expression of the enzymes varies. Either they may have very less activity or tissue specific expression may be the reason. Some of the enzymes like phosphenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NADP-malic enzyme ( NADP- ME), NAD – malic enzyme, ( NAD- ME), NADP-malate dehydrogenase ( NADP- MDH), Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase ( PEPCK), pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) are some of the C4 cycle enzymes that have the potential for the variation in the level of expression. Individual over expression of the C4 cycle enzymes in C3 plants can be looked upon. Some studies have found that over expression of the enzyme phosphenol pyruvate carboxylase as the first step for the establishment of the C4 cycle in the C3 plants. So the sequence analysis and comparison will give us the details about the expression level of the enzymes and will provide the pathway for over expressing or suppressing the C4- enzymes in theC3 plants. (Hausler et al. 2002). References: Bartsch, O., Mikkat, S., Hagemann, M and Bauwe, H 2010, An Autoinhibitory Domain Confers Redox Regulation to Maize Glycerate Kinase, Plant physiology, 153: 832-840. Hausler, RE., Hirsch, HJ., Kreuzaler, F., and Peterhansel, C 2002, Over expression of C4 cycle enzymes in transgenic C3 plants : a biotechnological approach to improve C3- Photosynthesis, Journal of Experimental Botany, 53 (369): 591- 607. Nomura, M., Higuchi, T., Ishida, Y., Ohta, S., Komari, T., Imaizumi, N., Miyao- Tokutomi, M., Matsuoka., M and Tajima, S 2005, Differential Expression Pattern of C4 Bundle Sheath Expression Genes in Rice, a C3 Plant , Plant Cell Physiology, 46 (5): 754–761. Sharpe, RM., Mahajan, A., Takacs, EM., Stern, DB and Cahoon, AB 2011, Developmental and cell type characterization of bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplast transcript abundance in maize, Current Genetics, 57: 89-102. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“What Role does Bundle Sheaths Play in C4 Plants Essay”, n.d.)
What Role does Bundle Sheaths Play in C4 Plants Essay. Retrieved from
(What Role Does Bundle Sheaths Play in C4 Plants Essay)
What Role Does Bundle Sheaths Play in C4 Plants Essay.
“What Role Does Bundle Sheaths Play in C4 Plants Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
margaretestroma added comment 1 year ago
Student rated this paper as
I never thought 500 words essay could be written in such a free manner. I loved the background of this essay. Will definitely use it for my own work!

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF What Role does Bundle Sheaths Play in C4 Plants

What role does sexuality play in Dracula

...What role does sexuality play in “Dracula”? The character of vampire occupied an important niche in the world literature long before Bram Stoker created his “Dracula”. However, in his interpretation of the already famous character we can find a kind of novelty that changed a vampire from dreadful creature to the embodiment of sexuality. The novel did not lose its relevance through centuries as many modern re-makes are based on it and it is deservingly considered to be one of the most popular creations of Gothic literature. Modern versions based on the novel written in 19th century prefer not to pay much attention to fears people had in Victorian times. It is well-known that Victorian...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Role Play

...; having to speak out; understanding some of the roles; and initial access problems, for example: "Those who didn't do the 'fun' stuff as well as the serious stuff." "Caused me a good deal of anxiety to participate." Discussion The findings above raise several key issues in relation to the role play. 1. What is role play and why use it 2. How different are face-to-face and online role play 3. Is role play a Western game culture and does that affect role engagement 4. How important is debriefing What is Role Play and...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Does culture play a significant role in Business

..., thinking as well as the acting programs of the human brain. Though definitions may be numerous, they get united at a certain point where they imply beliefs, patterns and human behaviors which are made and then transmitted. (Barger, 2007) This study is therefore, set out to discuss culture and more particularly in the context of business. To this, a vivid answer will be given in the pursuit of answering the thesis question, “Does culture play a significant role in business?” Culture is vital to economies, organizations and societies alike. This is since it ensures a competitive edge to all these stakeholders. Thus, no single business organization can sideline the significance of culture...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

What role does technology play in development

...What role does technology play in development? Introduction Technology plays a huge role in the development. Technology has influenced not only society; it has shifted accents from technology as means of development to technology as a core issue of the society. Revolutionary developments of technology, innovations in fields of communications and information have influenced the society to the greatest extent. Currently there is a need in clarifications of the core role of information and communication technologies (Mansell, 1998; James, 2004). In case information field is equally distributed in developed and developing countries, the...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Does music play a central role in the Goth scene

...Does music play a central role in the Goth scene? Table of Contents I. Introduction 3 II. On Whether Music Plays a Central Role in the Goth Scene 3 A. The Goth Scene, Key Features and Components 3 B. The Role of Music in the Goth Scene 5 Bibliography 9 I. Introduction This paper explores the role that music plays in the Goth scene, whether music plays a central or peripheral role. The Urban Dictionary defines goth as “Someone who likes the darker side of things. They [sic] usually listen to death metal and goth music” (Urban Dictionary 2014). The music site
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Plants physiology exam

...elevated levels of carbon iv oxide. The mechanism is called Kranz anatomy of the leaf whereby the bundle sheath cells helps tin decarboxylation of the CO2. These bundle sheath are found within the periphery of the vascular bundles found in the C4 plants, whereby they decarboxylate the carbon iv oxide coming from the mesophyll cells. This is different to the C3 plants which do not have the bundle sheath cells in accompaniment with the enzyme called PEP carboxylase, to help in regulating the high amounts of CO2 in the arid areas. The C3 plants only survive...
8 Pages(2000 words)Assignment

Role Play

...Role Play Divorce is one of the stressors in an individual life that may culminate into a number of things. Such things may range from mild depression to suicidal ideation. As defined by Barton, that a collective stress mainly occurs when many members of a social system fail to receive their expected life condition, divorce comes in as one of the major players in bringing collective pressure. It is because the divorced couples start to experience a new life without the help of a partner; the major hurdles that come with it include raising of children, paying rent, provision of food, just to mention a few. All these activities that the couples used to share, therefore, are shouldered on one person. Among...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

What role does social class play

...Role of Social Role of Social Proposal Social has played its role in thesociety from the very beginning. Every individual who is part of the society has been directly or indirectly affected from it. Since the phenomenon is not a new one, therefore, a more explicit literary portrayal of the role of social class can be seen in the humanities genre of the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Since the authors of that time had witnessed the role of social class more closely therefore they were able to write different themes associated with this topic, such as social class, status, love and hatred, justice, etc. Looking at the work of Jane...
16 Pages(4000 words)Essay

Role play

.... Have good analytical listening skills. This ability does play a significant role in leadership, for only through listening can one be able to gather as much information as possible. The modern leaders of our society that innovated the prosperity of their organizations, as well as nations, talk less and listen more. This is mainly because in listening to outsiders they can branch out of their comfort zones where everything is alright and learn of the emerging problems being incurred. In my leadership position, I utilize my analytical listening abilities by first surrounding myself with trustworthy individuals who can talk a lot and address problems experienced objectively. From this...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Role play

...Healthcare Reengineering Healthcare Reengineering Reengineering of healthcare services is proving to be a vital methodology in addressing the quality issues in health care. Reengineering entails an overhaul of the existing process, systems and consolidating overlapping systems so as to maximize the benefits of both nurses and the patients (Ellerbe & Regen, 2012). The primary objective of reengineering is to increase the quality of healthcare at the lowest cost. Nurse leaders play a vital role in system re-engineering since they are among the decision makers in a health institution. Nurse leaders are closer to the nurses and patients. As such, they have a closer look of things or a firsthand perspective of operations and services... in a...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic What Role does Bundle Sheaths Play in C4 Plants for FREE!

Contact Us