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Avian influenza - Essay Example

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Avian influenza Avian influenza Avian influenza Avian influenza was not expected to cause disease in human beings. However in 1997, an influenza epidemic broke out in Asia and North East Africa (WHO, 2011). The avian subtype H5N1 had been incriminated for the several human diseases and deaths and was known to occur from infected poultry birds and farmyard animals as influenza A (CDC, 2009)…
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Download file to see previous pages The swine flu epidemic of 2009 made things look worse. Efforts since then had been consistently attempting to be ever-ready for an influenza epidemic through improving global surveillance and response capacity. The H5N1 avian flu virus was highly pathogenic and had caused disease widely in wild birds and poultry (CDC, 2009). It caused 408 human cases by February 2009. Guidance for testing of suspected human cases infected with pathological avian flu with H5N1 influenza virus were provided. Enhanced surveillance by local and national health care services was to continue. Cases were to be notified to the local and national authorities immediately a presumptive diagnosis is made. Follow-up of cases was a necessity. In the US, information had to be transferred to the CDC (CDC, 2009). Guidelines for diagnosis Testing and reporting guidelines had been established by the CDC. A person diagnosed presumptively with avian flu had to be hospitalized because it could end fatally. Another requirement for hospitalization was that the temperature of the patient would be equal to or more than 38°C. The patient could have any other respiratory illness like pneumonia or acute or severe respiratory illness (CDC, 2009). ...
The infection was spread through droplet infection when in close contact. Procedure for diagnosis Clinicians needed to notify the local and higher authorities when a person was to be diagnosed using laboratory tests. Specific guidelines were also followed for the clinicians who performed the specimen collection and testing. Protective equipment for the clinicians was to be strictly used to prevent any contamination of the body parts with the suspected or confirmed person with H5N1 virus and when entering the room where aerosol generating procedures have been used where such a patient was lying in (CDC, 2009). The respiratory protector (N-95) filtering face mask, goggles, face shield, latex gloves, gown and head covering were all included (CDC, 2009). In the absence of a particulate respirator, other certified respirators like the NIOSH-certified N-, R-, or P-class respirators could be used. The aerosol-generating procedures could be done only with the N-95 respirator or powered air purifying respirators (CDC, 2009). Bronchoalveolar lavage was a high-risk aerosol generating procedure which required excellent protection. If the clinician had a beard, a loose-fitting respirator could be used. The virus could be detected from the bronchoalveolar lavage, oropharyngeal swabs, or endotracheal aspirate as these specimens usually had the virus. The nasopharyngeal swab contained lesser virus so lower respiratory specimen should be taken (CDC, 2009). However nasopharyngeal swabs sufficed for detection of influenza viruses A and B. If most virus count needed to be isolated, multiple respiratory specimens from the same patient could be taken on other days too. The ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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