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Summary of Molecule bonds, Amino and Nucleic Acids, Proteins - Assignment Example

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Here Here Here Date Here Summary of Molecular Bonds, Amino and Nucleic Acids, and Proteins 1. Chemical Bonds Chemical bonds result from an attraction between atoms and can result in molecules (hence the alternate use of the word “molecular” in the term)…
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Summary of Molecule bonds, Amino and Nucleic Acids, Proteins
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Download file to see previous pages More generally, bonds may be intermolecular (between atoms in different molecules) or intra molecular (atom to atom bonds within the same molecule). Different theories (such as valence theory and molecular orbital theory) have been used to describe chemical bonds. They are viewed as being complementary with each theory best explaining certain aspects of the bonds. The use of these theories has led to the creation of different molecules through the various bonding processes. Additionally, there are means to visualize the bonding. One of the most popular bonding diagrams is the Lewis Dot Style. In this type of diagram, the chemical symbol of the atom is drawn with up to eight electrons drawn around it as dots (two on each side, top, and bottom). Bonds are displayed according to the arrangement of electrons being shared or attracted. 2. Amino and Nucleic Acids Amino acids are a class of chemicals that contain both an amine and a carboxyl (or carboxylic acid) group. All amino acids follow a general chemical formula of H2NCHRCOOH, where “R” is used as a variable to refer to one of many possible side groups. These groups can be as small as one molecule but can also grow quite large. The name and functional of amino acids are closely related to the side group. Accordingly, an alternate name for the side group is functional group. All proteins are made from a chain of amino acids. The number of amino acids contained in the protein, as well as their order, is specific to that protein and results in the protein’s shape. A group of twenty amino acids are drawn from to make up all the proteins of the body. Along with amino acids, nucleic acids are a type of large molecule (macromolecule) that is extremely important for life to occur. All nucleic acids are made up of smaller structures called nucleotides (molecules with a nitrogen base, phosphate group, and a sugar group containing five carbons). The sequence of nucleotides will determine the type of nucleic acid that is formed. Two of the most essential types of nucleic acids (as related to life) are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). These structures are responsible for containing and transcribing genetic information. This information is then used to instruct many processes within the body, including the construction of proteins. Amino and nucleic acids are robust in living creatures. Together they enable the transport, encoding, decoding, and execution of genetic processes. Certain kinds of each compound can be synthesized in the laboratory for research and various treatment purposes (both potential and realized). 3. Proteins Amino acids can form long chains known as polypeptides (partially named for the peptide bond that forms between amino acids) that can become proteins on their own or in combination with other polypeptides. Proteins are found in muscle and therefore the meat of many animals. These large molecules fill many important roles in the body, including strengthening bones, acting as hormones, cellular structure, and as important participants in cellular signaling. Protein is an important part of the animal diet, as it is broken down and used to form other compounds such as the amino acids that make other proteins. Some ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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