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DNA Structure and Cell Membrane - Assignment Example

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The "DNA Structure and Cell Membrane" paper states that the genetic material of the cell is in the form of DNA. There are 46 molecules of DNA in each human cell. The DNA is present in the form of a string known as a nucleosome bound around octamers of protein known as histones. …
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DNA Structure and Cell Membrane
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Download file to see previous pages The electrons in the outermost shell are known as valence electrons and each atom tries to complete a complement of 8 electrons to attain electrical stability. The different forms of an element are known as isotopes, and the unstable isotopes capable of decay, are called radioisotopes. This phenomenon is known as radioactivity. Radiations are of three main types: alpha, beta, and gamma rays. They are measured in Sieverts(> 5 Sv are fatal).

Ions are atoms with unequal numbers of protons and electrons. Electrolytes are salts from ions in solution and thus transmit electricity. Free radicals are particles with an odd number of electrons. Their damaging effects in the body are prevented by antioxidants like SOD, selenium, and vitamin E.

Two or more atoms unite by means of chemical bonds from molecules. The bonds can be ionic(formed by gaining or losing an electron), covalent(formed by sharing electrons), and hydrogen bonds(formed by the weak attraction between polarized molecules.)

Water constitutes 50 to 75% of our body weight. The molecule is polar with a slightly negative charge on oxygen and a slightly positive charge on hydrogen. Other substances, when added to water, can form solutions(solute +solvent), colloids(cloudy), or suspensions(particles too heavy to remain permanently suspended.)

are organic molecules with the empirical formula (CH2O)n. The simplest sugars are monosaccharides(glucose, fructose). Two monosaccharides combine to form disaccharides(sucrose, lactose). Carbohydrates containing long chains of monosaccharides are known as polysaccharides(cellulose, starch).

Lipids are hydrophobic molecules containing relatively large amounts of hydrogen. They are of 5 main types; fatty acids(saturated and unsaturated), eicosanoids, steroids, triglycerides, and phospholipids.

Proteins are polymers of amino acids, attached by means of peptide bonds, that have important structural and functional roles in the cell. The sequence of amino acids on the polypeptide chain is known as the primary structure. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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