Extract of sample "Explain how the relationship between the dose of drug given to an individual and the concentration of drug molecules"
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These factors are discussed in more detail below, based on the description of Goodman, et al. (2011, ch. 2). The characteristics of the drug molecule itself that affect the drug’s concentration at the receptor site include its molecular size, degree of ionization, lipid solubility, and its affinity for serum and tissue proteins. The plasma membrane (of skin or intestinal cells, for example) is a common barrier to drug distribution; drugs that are not lipid soluble will not be able to permeate the membrane and not reach the target site. A drug of small molecular size will travel more easily through the membranes than a larger molecule, reaching the target in higher concentrations. Ionized molecules, and those that bind to proteins, also have difficulties in passing through the membrane. If the drug has a tendency to ionize at the pH of the intestinal lumen or the blood, the ionized form will have difficulty passing through lipid plasma membranes. If the drug interacts with transporter proteins on the cell membrane, its uptake into the cell may be increased or decreased, depending on the direction in which the transporter moves the drug. For example, the P-glycoprotein in enterocytes limits the oral absorption of some cancer chemotherapeutic agents by exporting them back into the lumen of the GI tract. Similarly, it has been found that multidrug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (PGP) and members of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family are over-expressed in capillary endothelial cells in epileptogenic brain tissue, and, by transporting anti-epileptic drugs out, these proteins may be responsible for the pharmacoresistance of the epileptic brain to anti-epileptic drugs (Löscher and Potschka, 2002).
transporters such as P-glycoprotein (PGP) and members of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family are over-expressed in capillary endothelial cells in epileptogenic brain tissue, and, by transporting anti-epileptic drugs out, these proteins may be responsible for the pharmacoresistance of the epileptic brain to anti-epileptic drugs (Loscher and Potschka, 2002). If a drug is capable of binding to plasma proteins such as albumin, then some of the drug molecules in the bloodstream bind to the proteins, while the remaining unbound drug molecules are available to reach equilibrium across all membranes and reach the target receptor. Thus, plasma protein binding limits the concentration of the drug at its site of action. When the site of action of concern is the brain, the capability of the drug to cross the blood-brain barrier determines the concentration of administered drug that can reach the target. The more lipophilic the drug in its unbound, non-ionized form, the greater will be its ability to pass through the endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier, and thus the higher will be its bioavailability in the brain. How the route of administration affects the fraction of the drug dose that reaches the target is also important. The most common route of administration is oral, however, this route has several implications on bioavailability, and the dose swallowed will not entirely reach the target site. Only a fraction of the ingested drug is absorbed from the intestine, depending on the factors discussed in the previous paragraph. As more absorption takes place in the intestine than the stomach, any factor that increases stomach emptying (such as such as lying down on the right side and level of physical activity) increases drug absorption as the
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Understanding the reasons why illicit drug use persists within our own borders is an important component in stopping the drug-crime relationship, yet legislation often falls short of helping the victims of the drugs (those who are addicted) and instead focuses efforts on drug traffickers.Arguable, law enforcement is an equal component in the effective curtailing of illicit drug use, and recent legislation has been effective. Throughout history there have been a number of legislative efforts aimed at stemming the flow of drugs and other substances deemed by the U.S.
Drug education is vital in the teen’s life as it helps them to make responsible and right decisions about utilizing drugs. According to the studies conducted by McIntosh 2005, it was established that, out of a hundred young people aged between 13-22 years, eighty two (82%) percent of them had used cannabis, 18% have tried heroin and 33% had utilized cocaine powder.
It is also is available in the form of 2.5 or 5 single dose nebuliser solution. Brand names for such are Asmoluni-dose, GenRx Salbutamol, Butamol 2.5, Pharmacor Salbutamol, Salbutamol Sandoz, Salbutamol GA, VentolinNebules, and Salbutamol Sulfate. CFC-free oral free inhalers are available as Asmol CFC-free, Ventolin CFC-Free, Airomir and AiromirAutohaler (with breath actuated device), and APO Salbutamol inhaler.
The study of the relationship between immigration and crime is not one that can be simply understood as "will increased immigration lead to an increase in amount of crimes committed in a given area?" Such studies provide insight into the question of whether immigrants are involved disproportionately in the commission of criminal acts.
Several calls, letters, and visits will be made to these centers to procure the assistance of the administration. Questionnaires would be administered to approximately 50 of those who comply. The questions will ascertain how often abuse of the child occurred subsequent to the use of drugs and whether these instances were prone to change with changes in amount and type of drug used.
The author explains that the plasma membrane (of skin or intestinal cells, for example) is a common barrier to drug distribution; drugs that are not lipid soluble will not be able to permeate the membrane and not reach the target site. A drug of small molecular size will travel more easily through the membranes.
Obviously, young people are more malleable and more susceptible to various kinds of peer pressure. Since young people are more impressionable and easily influenced, it is important to stress the importance of prevention. In order to stop drug and alcohol abuse, young people in the UK must be educated about the dangers of long-term effects that substance abuse can have on people.
buse as well as addiction, and at the same time looks at the aspects of epidemiology, social problems, pathophysiology, as well as ethical issues that might arise with medical emergency responders.
Drug abuse and drug addiction; exactly what does that imply and who is affected
Crime, on the other hand, refers to acts that cause harm or loss either to others or to the state. Criminal activities are varied and range from driving under the influence of alcohol, to murder among others. The linkage between drug use and crime arises from
With the advent of technology, much was revealed about these microbial organisms and efforts were made to combat their virulence properties. But it was Fleming’s accidental discovery of Penicillin that initiated and revolutionized the development of potent antibiotic drugs.
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