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Microbial Behaviour: Herd Immunity - Essay Example

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In the paper “Microbial Behaviour: Herd Immunity” the author discusses herd immunity in terms of a chosen immune parameter and the number of individuals in population observed to be positive for the parameter referred to herd immunity of that population…
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Microbial Behaviour: Herd Immunity
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Download file to see previous pages Another implication of the phenomenon is that the presence of higher number of immune individuals in a population is inversely proportional to the risk of the susceptible individuals in the population being affected by the infection (Plotkin et al., 2011). Thus herd immunity is the immunization or infection in human or other organisms while herd effect is the health interventions or immunizations aimed to reduce the transmission of infection from human to human or through the vector. Herd immunity is a phenomenon that is one of the determinants of herd effect (John & Samuel, 2000). MASS VACCINATION AND HERD IMMUNITY Medical interventions usually target an individual, dealing with the treatment of specific diseases in a particular individual that is not expected to exercise any physiological effect on others. Vaccines contradict this principle. Vaccine, the term is derived from the Latin word for cowpox; variole vaccine” as used by Edward Jenner in 1796. Vaccines are biological preparations that enhance or help build immunity to a specific disease. Immunity is the ability of the living body to accept the indigenous material or their ‘own’ and reject foreign materials. This ability allows the body to protect itself against infections which result as a consequence of the presence of the microbes; organisms that are treated as foreign particles. The process of vaccination involves the introduction of live attenuated or inactive microbes into the living body. These vaccines function by stimulating body’s immune system to produce antibodies specific to the microbe for the disease for which vaccine has been introduced (CDC). HISTORY OF MASS VACCINATION History of vaccination can be traced back to 1796, when Edward Jenner, a doctor of England; found that inoculation of individuals with material from cowpox lesion enables successful development of immunity against smallpox. The process does not involve risk of smallpox development and hence was safer compared to variolation. The process soon became a successful strategy for prevention of smallpox all over the world. Thereafter control of several diseases such as diphtheria, tetanus, yellow fever, pertussis, Haemophilus influenza type b disease, measles, mumps, poliomyelitis, rubella, typhoid, and rabies has been possible through the use of vaccines (Plotkin & Plotkin, 2008). MASS VACCINATION AND HERD IMMUNITY With the utility and efficacy of smallpox vaccine established, by 1807, vaccination for the same was made compulsory in most European countries. Vaccination acts enforced by vaccination officers ensured the administration of free, universal and compulsory vaccines in the United Kingdom with fined imposed on those who opposed them. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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I didn’t know how to start my essay. "Microbial Behaviour: Herd Immunity" helped me out a lot! Especially the list of first sentence was valuable.
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