Author Tutor Course Date #1 How art and architecture in 5th century Athens reflects the political, trade, and military conditions of Periclean Athens Fifth-century Athens represents the Greek city-state of Athens in the period ranging from 480 BC to 404 BC…
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Athens generated some of the most significant and lasting cultural artifacts within Western tradition at a time when it was able to subdue its enemies, and enhance its political fortunes under the guidance of statesmen and orator Pericles. Historians perceive the Athenian 5th and 6th centuries BCE to be the Golden Age of architecture and sculpture. During the period, the ornamental elements and the technique utilized did not differ significantly from the previous period (Kinzl 84). Majority of the works were religious in nature and featured temples and sanctuaries. The Parthenon represented a symbol of the Golden Mean; a time in which architecture, arts, vase painting, and sculpture thrived and every of the art forms benefited from interactions with other art forms. The patron goddess of Athens joins architecture with, and sculpture to shape a whole that mirrors the Golden Mean, the Greek pursuit of harmony, order, and balance. The entire of urban Athens features a system of huge walls, which guaranteed that Athens was always open to the sea, and only enemies (naval force) with superior to her unparalleled fleet could succeed in cutting the city off from vital supplies (Pedley 37). Phidias created colossal gold-plated marble statues that remain highly commemorated and admired. #2 How extensive reformation and reconstruction of the city demonstrate a return to the sanctuary and civic center designs of the 750-450 BCE? The autonomous city-state ruled by diverse aristocracy in which contacts were rich from diverse points of view social, cultural, and commercial. The restored sanctuaries feature refined sculptures, paved roads, and agora as highlighted by the temple of Poseidon and Temple of Hera. The extensive reformations and reconstruction of the city of Athens highlights a tendency to return to or a deviation from the sanctuary and civic centre designs ranging from 750-450 BCE. Examples of prominent works at this period entail reconstruction of the Temple of Plympian Zeus, reconstruction of the Temple of Apollo located in Delphi, and the reconstruction the Acropolis of Athens. This is most apparent at the Elymian site of Segesta, a location where the Elymians started to construct a Doric temple within the 5th century BC, whereby the reconstructions mirror the religious and civic centre designs in the period ranging 750-450 BCE in terms of (1) foot style; (2) exterior decoration; (3) underside treatment. The Corinthian foot style comprises of a flaring ring that might also be molded, whereas the Attic style comprises of a “tire-shaped” torus ring foot (Whitley 11). The decorative elements are notable owing to their conformity to the sanctuary and civic centered designs ranging from 750-450 BCE. #3 How the Athenian Acropolis and Agora reflect and Athens that considers itself part of the Greek unified world The Athenian Acropolis can be regarded as the most lavish, technically superior, and programmatically cohesive temple within Greek mainland and represents a fitting commemoration of the Athenian’s remarkable and unexpected victories during the Persian wars. Persian wars had thematic significance to the art of Classical Athens, as well as the building program on the Acropolis. The buildings and monuments also avail a broad range of testimony to the sacred character of the Late Archaic Acropolis. The Acropolis of Athens represents an ancient citadel situated on an elevated rocky outcrop within the city of Athens, and detailing the remains of a number of
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