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Farming societies - Essay Example

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Name: Instructor: Course: Tutor: Date: Farming Societies The first thing that any anthropologist would think of when the word society is mentioned is a group of people with a common bond, territory or culture. According to Walrath and Prins, anthropologists study economic systems by analyzing the means, by which goods are produced, distributed and consumed in a certain society (39)…
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Farming societies
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Farming societies

Download file to see previous pages... In simple farming societies economic activities are not separated from religious, political and social aspects (Walrath and Prins 51). The economic system of a farming society largely depends on production, distribution and consumption of goods. However, there many types of economic systems which include: traditional and modern, industrial and non-industrial, and small scale and large scale economies. In the small scale societies that are non-industrial, land and other valuable resources are usually controlled by groups of related people and individual ownership of land is rare to find. The division of labour is done according to gender and age of the members of the society. Simple farming societies also practice specialization of arts and crafts, although, production is carried out only for the quantity required at that moment. Most of the goods produced are consumed by those in the group that produces them. This is different from the economic organization of large scale industrial and post industrial societies (Walrath and Prins 59). ...
The exchange of goods and services is also done as a ritual or for prestige purposes (Walrath and Prins 86). This is where distribution of goods is done by the governments or the religious elite who collect and allocate resources. Locations of exchange of goods and services are designated in certain areas. Here, people meet friends and strangers, find entertainment and trade goods. However, in industrial societies, exchange is indirect, impersonal and mediated through money or capital assets in form of shares and stocks. Moreover, in the digital age, trade can be conducted on the internet with personal contact. The major characteristic among farming societies is Cooperative work groups regardless the society’s industrial capability. For instance, in cases the work group involves the whole community a festive mood permeates the work. In most societies, cooperation basically starts at the household level. Through cooperation, farming societies are able to allocate duties of production and distribution, as well as, allocation of goods and resources. There is great diversity in the types of specialized tasks that are performed. However, although specialization has increased in the farming societies, modern technologies have influenced them such that division of labor on the basis of gender has become less relevant. In modern farming societies, each member is knowledgeable on all aspects of work although specialization is still maintained (Walrath and Prins 43). According to Walrath and Prins, Simple farming societies are firmly rooted in the cultures of people in their communities (101). This culture is passed on from the older generation to the younger generation. By doing this, the younger members of the farming society, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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