Name: Course: Lecturer: Date: The Feminist Critique and the Postmodern Challenge to Anthropology Feminist Critique is a term that traces its roots to the Ideal that is commonly referred to as Feminism. This critique, also known as Feminist criticism, according to Esther Lombardi is defined as a type of literal criticism, that studies and advocates for the rights of women…
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Feminism, as an ideal, is the collection of movements, associations, groupings and or establishments that aim at defending, defining and establishing equality in the spheres of social rights, politics and the economy; this pertaining to women. In addition, the ideal promotes the creation and provision of equal opportunities for women in both education and also in employment. Thus, a feminist is a person who’s behavioral and belief systems are based on the ideal of feminism (Fruzzetti 39). From the afore-mentioned feminist movements, associations and groupings emerged the Feminist theory, which aimed at understanding the causes and reasons for the presence of gender inequality. This understanding was based on the examination of women lived experiences and social roles throughout history and into the contemporary 21st Century. From it emerged different theories that touched on a variety of disciplines; this so as to respond and subsequently address issues such as the social construct of gender and sex. Some earlier forms of the theory received criticism for their taking into consideration only educated, white middle-class perspectives. As a result, of this criticism, was the creation of multi-culturalist and/ or ethnically-specific forms of the theory (Cott 73). Feminists campaign on the platform of ‘Women’s Rights’ – bodily integrity, reproductive rights (including access to abortion and contraceptives), women’s suffrage, equal pay, right to property and entry into contracts (contract law), and also voting. They seek to protect girls and women from domestic violence, sexual assaults and harassments among other violations. Due to its radical nature, this ideal has attracted its share of both criticism and blessings; this in the form of pro-feminism and anti-feminism ideologies. Feminism and Anthropology As a result of the feminist critique to anthropology, the approach – Feminist anthropology – emerged. It sought to study cultural anthropology and correct the perceived andro-centric bias within the field. Its origin can be traced to early anthropologists such as E.E. Evans-Pritchard and James Frazer, who both displayed much interest in the notions of marriage and kinship. Women would thus, always appear in their ethnographies. Henrietta Moore, who is a prominent theorist in (the school of thought of) feminist anthropology, though of the opinion that women had been included in anthropological research and theory, was of the view that the problem was not the presence of women in anthropology, but in its representation, interpretation and understanding (Bratton10). According to her, it is how women are included in anthropology that matters. Thus, the challenge, then, was to avail new critical analysis on the existing anthropological literature, including creation of new research that placed the ‘Woman’ in the centre of it. This led to the emergence of self-conscious feminist anthropology in the 1970s; this as a series of challenges to the male-dominated and biased anthropology. Rayna Rapp, in her work - Toward an Anthropology of Women (1975), was one of the earliest contributors to this emerging school. She argued that women and men experience gender differently; this in reference to the myriad of social markers. The experiences of women were in themselves a legitimate subject for
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He or she thinks of forms instinctively, and then attempts to rationalize them; a dialectical process controlled by theory. This theory can only be studied in philosophical and ethical terms. The core of theory as a philosophy is the recognition that there are conjoint worlds, the central debate of philosophy being over the dialogue between them (White 7).
This, says Kelley, causes stereotyping of the “underclass” as per the social scientists own definition of the term and, therefore, the reality of different cultures within that same underclass is not discussed among them. For instance, social scientists in the 60s, generalizes all black culture as ghetto culture, claiming it to be a result of the racist attitude of the society.
The right of the parties, either natural or juridical persons, to enter into an agreement cannot be curtailed except when it is against the law, public policy, good custom or morals. This entails voluntary and conscious action between the parties who are at liberty to negotiate and stipulate the terms of the agreement.
However, Zohrab (6) provides a definition of feminism that is seen to be widely acceptable as it essentially encompasses all the various different definitions of the term. According to Zohrab, feminism can be defined as being the application of the victims of oppression model to various different situations that are faced by women in the modern society today.
Critiquing of postmodern thought and culture possibly refers to the ultimate evaluation and re-evaluation of the features of the postmodern thought and far deep insight into the discovery of the concealed component of it1. While critiquing could expose the weakness or failures of this mode of thought, it could also infer positive elements that would support its adoption.
Thomas Kuhn became a Harvard graduate in 1943, and continued to finish off his formal studies with his Ph.D. in 1949. Being the intellectual that he was, he did not go unnoticed and from 1949 to 1956, he taught in Harvard upon the invitation of the then University President, James Conant.
However, this article focuses on others (such a doctors and nurses, particularly family nurses who can play a big role in alleviating the patient's suffering. The reason they play a big role is because the person with the illness, or the patient, has close ties to the nurse (medical practitioner) as he or she depends on the nurse for medical care on a regular basis.
Many other cultures tolerate or encourage polygamy. There have been major changes in patterns of family life in the United States during the postwar period: a high percentage of women are in the paid labor force, rates of divorce are rising, and substantial numbers of children live either in single-parent households or with stepfamilies.
Anthropologists in general look at cross-cultural differences in social institutions, cultural beliefs, and communication styles. In fact in recent years with the growing globalization, this subject has gained much more importance. Knowledge about human diversity is helpful especially in the case of global organizations.